Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.

Cross Putty, medieval wayside cross-base 70m south east of Bosworgey Cottage

A Scheduled Monument in St. Columb Major, Cornwall

Approximate Location Map
Large Map »
Street or Overhead View
Contributor Photos »

If Google Street View is available, the image is from the best available vantage point looking, if possible, towards the location of the monument. Where it is not available, the satellite view is shown instead.

Coordinates

Latitude: 50.43 / 50°25'47"N

Longitude: -4.9562 / 4°57'22"W

OS Eastings: 190142.676768

OS Northings: 63078.907409

OS Grid: SW901630

Mapcode National: GBR ZL.VWYN

Mapcode Global: FRA 07HX.JYV

Entry Name: Cross Putty, medieval wayside cross-base 70m south east of Bosworgey Cottage

Scheduled Date: 29 January 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017641

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30438

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Columb Major

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Columb Major

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross-base situated on a wide verge
at a crossroads on a route from St Columb Major to Newquay. The wayside cross-
base is visible as a rectangular granite slab measuring 0.78m north-south by
0.67m east-west. The cross-base is groundfast, set almost flush with the
ground, though up to 0.09m of the sides are visible above ground. The central
square socket measures 0.37m north-south by 0.39m east-west and is 0.2m deep.
The socket is filled with water. The cross-base has been moved twice in the
recent past due to road alterations at this junction, but has remained close
to its original location. The cross-base is still used today as a hurling
goal, an ancient ball game which is played twice a year by the people of
St Columb Major parish, on Shrove Tuesday and the second Saturday following.
The cross-base marks a junction of four roads.
A 19th century granite milestone which is Listed Grade II is located 0.95m to
the south of the cross-base. The milestone is excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The presence of this medieval wayside cross-base close to its original
location demonstrates well the major roles of wayside crosses, the
development of the road network and the longevity of many routes still in use.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Kightly, C, The Customs and Ceremonies of Britain, (1986)
Langdon, A, Stone Crosses in Mid Cornwall, (1994)
Other
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 86/96; Pathfinder Series 1346
Source Date: 1985
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

AncientMonuments.uk is an independent online resource and is not associated with any government department. All government data published here is used under licence. Please do not contact AncientMonuments.uk for any queries related to any individual ancient or schedued monument, planning permission related to scheduled monuments or the scheduling process itself.

AncientMonuments.uk is a Good Stuff website.