Ancient Monuments

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Moated site 700m north west of Brick Kiln Farm Cottages

A Scheduled Monument in Bradenham, Norfolk

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Latitude: 52.6546 / 52°39'16"N

Longitude: 0.8821 / 0°52'55"E

OS Eastings: 595042.299845

OS Northings: 310218.652357

OS Grid: TF950102

Mapcode National: GBR SBV.FW9

Mapcode Global: WHLS3.JJ9R

Entry Name: Moated site 700m north west of Brick Kiln Farm Cottages

Scheduled Date: 3 September 2002

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020785

English Heritage Legacy ID: 35066

County: Norfolk

Civil Parish: Bradenham

Traditional County: Norfolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Norfolk

Church of England Parish: Bradenham West St Andrew

Church of England Diocese: Norwich


The monument includes a medieval moated site and associated features 700m
north west of Brick Kiln Farm Cottages. Formerly in East Bradenham it is now
part of Bradenham civil parish, lying close to the north eastern parish
boundary. The moated site is one of ten recorded in this parish. In 1086
three separate land holdings were recorded in Bradenham; one of these, in the
possession of Ralph Baynard, has been identified with East Bradenham. In the
12th century Baynard's land was held by Saer de Quincy, Earl of Winchester.
The land subsequently descended from the de Quincys to the Lacey family, Earls
of Lincoln. In the 14th century land holdings in East Bradenham included those
of the Abbot of Bury and the Huntingfield family and lands in the possession
of Lord Bardolph. These manors were later united under the Hungates.
A central platform, or island, is enclosed by a water-filled moat with two
rhomboidal enclosures adjoining the south west and the north east sides. The
platform is roughly square in plan, measuring approximately 54m in width, and
is raised about 0.75m above the general ground level. The moat measures up to
10m in width and 1.5m in depth, with modern low earthen causeways across the
north east and south west arms now providing access between the platform and
the adjoining enclosures.
A partly water-filled channel, measuring 8m wide and 1.5m deep, extends from
the southern and western corners of the moat to surround the south western
enclosure. The enclosure measures approximately 64m north west-south east by
24m at the south east end, narrowing to 10m in width at the north west end
where the interior is raised above the general ground level.
The enclosure adjacent to the north east side of the moat measures
approximately 60m north west-south east by 24m at the north west end narrowing
to 12m in width at the opposite end. It is bounded on the south east side by a
water-filled channel which extends from the east corner of the moat, and is
partly enclosed to the north east and north west by a water-filled L-shaped
pond. The north east arm of the L-shaped feature measures approximately 50m
in length by 6m wide and is separated from the north west arm of the pond by
a narrow earthen bank. The north west arm, which is slightly irregular in
plan, measuring 30m in length by 12m, is thought to have served as a fishpond.
A modern channel now links the north east arm of the L-shaped pond and the
channel at the south east edge of the enclosure. A shallow hollow at the east
corner of the north east enclosure is thought to indicate the position of an
inlet channel.
Two water-filled ponds, thought to be fishponds, lie adjacent to the outer
edge of the north west arm of the moat. The southernmost pond is roughly
square in plan, measuring about 10m in width, with a shallow hollow, thought
to be an inlet channel, at the west corner. At the north eastern edge of the
pond is a 1m wide earthen bank separating it from the second pond which is
irregular in plan, measuring about 10m north east-south west. Short channels
leading eastward from each pond into the adjacent arm of the moat represent
part of the water management system.
All fence posts, bird feeders and artificial animal burrows are excluded from
the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites
served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the
provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical
military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was
between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in
central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built
throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and
exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a
significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding
of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples
provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

A fishpond is an artificially created pool of slow moving freshwater
constructed for the purpose of cultivating, breeding and storing fish to
provide a constant and sustainable food supply. Groups of up to twelve ponds
variously arranged in a single line or in a cluster joined by leats have been
recorded. Fishponds were maintained by a water management system which
included inlet and outlet channels. The tradition of constructing and using
fishponds in England began during the medieval period and peaked in the 12th
century and were largely built by the wealthy sectors of society.
The moated site and associated features 700m north west of Brick Kiln Farm
Cottages survive well as a series of earthwork and buried deposits despite
some superficial disturbance. The buried remains will include archaeological
information concerning the construction and occupation of the site in the
medieval period. Water-logged deposits in the moat and ponds will preserve
organic remains (such as timber, leather and seeds) which will give an insight
into the domestic and economic activity on the site and the local environment
in the past. Evidence for earlier land use is also likely to be preserved in
soils buried beneath the artificially raised ground.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Blomefield, F, An Essay towards a Topographical History of Norfolk, (1807)
Brown, P (ed), Doomsday Book: Norfolk, (1984)
illustration card, NMR, 358791, (2001)

Source: Historic England

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