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Moated site, ridge and furrow cultivation remains, a post-medieval formal garden and pond bays 600m south east of Court Farm, Gretton

A Scheduled Monument in Cardington, Shropshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.5486 / 52°32'55"N

Longitude: -2.7131 / 2°42'47"W

OS Eastings: 351740.17452

OS Northings: 294768.775996

OS Grid: SO517947

Mapcode National: GBR BL.DDRT

Mapcode Global: VH83B.X6KK

Entry Name: Moated site, ridge and furrow cultivation remains, a post-medieval formal garden and pond bays 600m south east of Court Farm, Gretton

Scheduled Date: 18 December 1979

Last Amended: 18 September 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020149

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33850

County: Shropshire

Civil Parish: Cardington

Traditional County: Shropshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Shropshire

Church of England Parish: Rushbury

Church of England Diocese: Hereford

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of a medieval moated
site, associated ridge and furrow cultivation remains, a post-medieval formal
garden and pond bays, which lie within three separate areas of protection.
Located to the east of the moated site, within the area of the post-medieval
garden, is the remaining part of a former farmhouse known as the Court House.
It dates to the mid-to late 16th century, largely rebuilt in the late 18th
century, and was partially demolished in the mid-19th century. The upstanding
remains of this dwelling are a Listed Building Grade II.
Manorial court records survive for Gretton from the early 15th century to the
mid-16th century, and from the later 18th century to 1817, and deal mainly
with local administrative issues and matters of penal concern. It is
considered that the moated site and later the Court House, surrounded by
formal gardens, was where the manorial courts were held.
The moated site is situated in an area of undulating land and occupies an
elevated position from where there is a pronounced fall in all directions
except to the east. From this location there are extensive views of the
surrounding area. The arms of the moat are about 7m wide and are marshy in
places, and define a rectangular island approximately 42m north to south by
46m east to west. Material excavated from the moat has been used to form
external banks, up to 0.5m high, along the western, northern and eastern arms.
A causeway, about 4m wide, which crosses the western arm, provides access to
the island. Raised and level areas on the southern half of the island appear
to relate to the positions of former buildings. Surrounding the moated site to
the east and south are the remains of cultivation strips (ridge and furrow)
orientated east to west, which in the medieval period formed part of a network
of open fields. As these cultivation remains appear to respect the moated site
they are likely to be contemporary.
The low-lying area surrounding the higher ground on which the moated site was
constructed has been extensively landscaped in order to create a large formal
garden, where water features were the principal components. A polygonal island
of approximately 1.8ha was formed around the moated site by cutting into and
accentuating the natural surrounding sloping ground. To the south of the
polygonal island a large, roughly heart-shaped pond basin of approximately
2.6ha was created. Its eastern side was formed by a dam, averaging 12m wide
and standing up to 1.2m high, while its western side was defined by a natural
scarp. The pond basin, which has been drained, and the southern portion of the
dam, which is under cultivation, are not included in the scheduling. Two broad
channels run from the pond basin and define the eastern and western sides of
the polygonal island. These channels also run into a shallow depression, now a
marshy area, which defines the northern side of the polygonal island. The
western channel has been partially recut in order to drain the surrounding
land. The channel to the east is bounded on its eastern side by a broad
flat-topped bank, which also acted as a dam to control the discharge of water
from around the polygonal island. The means of access onto the island and the
Court House was via a causeway, about 7m wide, which crosses the eastern
channel. Four small rectangular and sub-rectangular ponds were constructed
within the north eastern part of the polygonal enclosure. All appear to form
an integral part of the design of the garden and are likely to have been
ornamental fish pools. Three of the ponds have a direct association with the
former rectangular moat, which shows signs of having been recut, with one of
the ponds occupying the north eastern part the rectangular island.
To the east and south east of the polygonal island, located in two separate
areas, are the remains of two dams or pond bays, which retained large pools of
water within the neighbouring shallow valley. The dam which is closest to the
polygonal island, to the east, is about 9m wide and stands to a height of
1.5m. The proximity of this dam to the complex of water features to the west,
suggests it was probably contemporary with them. The more distant pond
downstream to the south east, which is defined by a much larger dam about 13m
wide and 2.3m high, appears to have been unconnected to the post-medieval
formal garden. Its size suggests that it was probably a dam for a mill pond of
probable medieval date.
The Court House and associated garden wall, the former pigsty, fence and gate
posts and stiles are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath
all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites
served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the
provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical
military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was
between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in
central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built
throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and
exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a
significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding
of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples
provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

Formal gardens dating from the early 16th century onwards were created close
to many large country houses. The layout of such designed landscapes often
included water features, some of which were built on a grand scale utilising
natural land forms and incorporating existing water features such as moats and
ponds. The creation of formal gardens gives an indication of the social
standing and aspirations of the occupants, and also provides an insight into
the artistic fashions of the period.
The moated site and the surrounding formal garden south east of Court Farm are
well-preserved examples of these types of monument, despite the later
alteration to parts of the large pond. The remains represent one of the most
extensive post-medieval formal gardens known in Shropshire.
The rectangular moated island will retain buried evidence of the structures
that once stood here. These structures, together with the buried and
upstanding structural remains on the polygonal island, and the associated
artefacts and organic remains, will provide valuable evidence about the
occupation and social status of the inhabitants of the site. All the dams,
including that for the mill pond, will retain evidence for their construction.
The ridge and furrow cultivation remains associated with the moated site
provide an indication of the use of the land in the medieval period prior to
its incorporation within the large formal garden. The records of the Gretton
manorial court provide valuable information regarding date and the use of the
site from the late medieval period onwards. In addition, a detailed survey of
the earthworks has provided a comprehensive view of these remains.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of Shropshire: Volume X, (1998), 63, 68
Everson, P, 'Garden Archaeology. CBA Research Report 78' in Field survey and garden earthworks, (1991), 11-12
Other
Wilson-North, R and Cocroft, W, Gretton - RCHME field survey plan and archive report, (1986)

Source: Historic England

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