Ancient Monuments

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Round 390m north east of Carwarthen

A Scheduled Monument in St. Just-in-Roseland, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.1987 / 50°11'55"N

Longitude: -5.0145 / 5°0'52"W

OS Eastings: 184959.932155

OS Northings: 37537.806851

OS Grid: SW849375

Mapcode National: GBR ZJ.PL02

Mapcode Global: FRA 08DH.D8R

Entry Name: Round 390m north east of Carwarthen

Scheduled Date: 24 November 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019611

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32933

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Just-in-Roseland

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Just-in-Roseland

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The scheduling includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, with
evidence for early medieval and possible Bronze Age occupation shown by
limited excavation. It is situated on a moderate north east slope above the
head of a stream feeding St Just Creek, east of the Carrick Roads. The round
is sub-oval in plan, measuring approximately 78m north east-south west by 71m
north west-south east overall. It has an earth and stone enclosing bank,
visible on the north, east, and south sides as a scarp around 10m across and
up to 1.3m high, with slight traces on the west and south west sides. The
excavations produced evidence for the stone revetment of the inside of the
bank, an entrance on the west side, and a buried external ditch 1.8m-3m deep
and at least 1.5m wide.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

The round 390m north east of Carwarthen survives reasonably well. Despite
reduction of the earthworks by ploughing, and limited excavation, it remains
substantially intact. The old land surface underlying the enclosing bank, and
remains of buildings and structures and other deposits associated with the
ramparts and external ditch, and with the interior, will survive. The
location, on a sheltered easterly slope, demonstrates the role of topography
in the siting of later prehistoric to Romano-British enclosures. The excavated
evidence for occupation from the later prehistoric to early medieval periods
illustrates the longevity of this settlement type.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Opie, S A, Excavations in the Roseland Peninsula, (1939)
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 50-54
SW 83 NW 14, Palmer, J, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1968)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1907

Title: St Just in Roseland Tithe Apportionment
Source Date: 1840
716, 717

Source: Historic England

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