Ancient Monuments

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Round 310m north of Carlannick

A Scheduled Monument in Philleigh, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.2172 / 50°13'2"N

Longitude: -5.0039 / 5°0'13"W

OS Eastings: 185799.210556

OS Northings: 39564.58611

OS Grid: SW857395

Mapcode National: GBR ZJ.NGSC

Mapcode Global: FRA 08DG.4CP

Entry Name: Round 310m north of Carlannick

Scheduled Date: 24 November 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019609

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32931

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Philleigh

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Philleigh

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The scheduling includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, situated
on top of a spur on the north side of a ridge forming a promontory between two
converging streams south of the River Fal. The spur is cut off from the
higher ground of the ridge on the south side by a pronounced natural dip.
The round is sub-oval in plan, measuring approximately 116m north east-south
west by 82m north west-south east. On the west side it is enclosed by an earth
and stone bank running along the top of the slope above the western stream
valley. It is 5m wide, and 2.5m high on the west side, and 1.4m high on the
east side, where it has been modified to form the field boundary with a
modern, nearly vertical stone revetment. An external ditch runs between the
bank and a natural scarp on the west side. It is approximately 4m wide and
0.4m-0.9m deep, and is cut through the natural rock in places.
On the north and south sides the modern field boundary extends from the
revetted bank of the round as stone faced earth and stone banks, running
across the external ditch. The ploughed but substantial remains of the
defences enclosing the round in the field to the east are visible as a scarp
0.8m-2.0m high, with a shelf 5m wide on the north and east sides considered to
be the remains of the silted or infilled external ditch.
The interior of the round is fairly smooth, rising slightly towards the
centre. To the west the ground dips some 0.3m towards the enclosing bank from
around 4m to its east. There are no clearly visible remains of an entrance; on
both the north and south sides there are ill-defined gaps in the scarp in the
field where it meets the bank to the west.
The round is closely associated with a field system to the south of the
monument which is considered to be of medieval origin. This has been reduced
by cultivation and is not considered to be of national importance.
All modern fencing and corrugated sheeting is excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

The round 310m north of Carlannick survives reasonably well. Despite limited
relatively recent modification of the bank to the west, and reduction of the
earthworks in the field on the east by ploughing, these remain substantially
intact. The old land surface underlying the bank, and remains of buildings,
structures and other deposits associated with it, together with the bank and
external ditch, and the interior, will survive. The location, on a spur with a
natural scarp to the west, demonstrates the role of topography in the siting
of later prehistoric to Romano-British enclosures.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 50, 149
SW 83 NE 3, Palmer, J, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1968)
Title: Cornwall Mapping Project
Source Date: 1996

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1901

Title: Philleigh Tithe Apportionment
Source Date: 1840

Source: Historic England

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