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Stanborough Camp Iron Age hillfort and bowl barrow

A Scheduled Monument in Halwell and Moreleigh, Devon

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.3521 / 50°21'7"N

Longitude: -3.7264 / 3°43'35"W

OS Eastings: 277272.373339

OS Northings: 51667.16423

OS Grid: SX772516

Mapcode National: GBR QK.L8CL

Mapcode Global: FRA 3823.J1Z

Entry Name: Stanborough Camp Iron Age hillfort and bowl barrow

Scheduled Date: 10 August 1923

Last Amended: 9 February 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019314

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33746

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Halwell and Moreleigh

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Church of England Parish: Halwell St Leonard

Church of England Diocese: Exeter

Details

This monument includes a slight univallate hillfort of sub-circular plan and
an earlier bowl barrow on a level hilltop with wide local views to the south
and west. The ramparts are covered with large mature beech trees, which make
the site a landmark for many miles around.
The fort is roughly oval, enclosing about two acres and has maximum dimensions
across the visible earthworks of 145m from east to west by 130m from north to
south. The rampart is 6m wide, rising between 1.5m and 2m from the interior
and falling about 3m to the ditch. The ditch varies between 8m wide on the
south side and 12m on the north and is an average of 1.5m deep. Traces of a
counterscarp bank in the garden on the west side are 7m wide and 0.7m high.
The ground falls away steeply to the west, where an entrance climbs abruptly
up into the fort, with the rampart falling in height to about 1m on either
side. On the east side, a later narrow entrance has been blocked with a stone
faced bank. These are both later entrances however, the original entrance
being on the south side, where a causeway crosses the ditch. The ramparts vary
considerably in their profile and areas of rebuilding are evident in places,
especially on the south and east sides. A stretch of bank in the south east
quadrant has been rebuilt about 2m inside the original outer face.
The fort's interior is virtually level. There is a possibility that this
hillfort represents the site of the Anglo-Saxon burh of Healghwille. It is
known to have been the meeting place of the hundred of Stanborough.
A large bowl barrow with a central stone chamber was enclosed by the later
hillfort and remains of it survive to the south east of the hillfort's centre.
The barrow appears as a low mound 17m in diameter and up to 0.1m high. It has
an encircling quarry ditch about 3m wide which is 0.1m deep on the south side,
but is not visible to the north.
The 20th century agricultural buildings, associated fences and track surfaces
occupying the site are excluded from the scheduling, although the beneath all
these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Slight univallate hillforts are defined as enclosures of various shapes,
generally between 1ha and 10ha in size, situated on or close to hilltops and
defined by a single line of earthworks, the scale of which is relatively
small. They date to between the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (eighth -
fifth centuries BC), the majority being used for 150 to 200 years prior to
their abandonment or reconstruction. Slight univallate hillforts have
generally been interpreted as stock enclosures, redistribution centres, places
of refuge and permanent settlements. The earthworks generally include a
rampart, narrow level berm, external ditch and counterscarp bank, while access
to the interior is usually provided by two entrances comprising either simple
gaps in the earthwork or an inturned rampart. Postholes revealed by excavation
indicate the occasional presence of portal gateways while more elaborate
features like overlapping ramparts and outworks are limited to only a few
examples. Internal features included timber or stone round houses; large
storage pits and hearths; scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies; and
square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six posts, often
represented by postholes, and interpreted as raised granaries. Slight
univallate hillforts are rare with around 150 examples recorded nationally.
Although on a national scale the number is low, in Devon they comprise one of
the major classes of hillfort. In other areas where the distribution is
relatively dense, for example, Wessex, Sussex, the Cotswolds and the
Chilterns, hillforts belonging to a number of different classes occur within
the same region. Examples are also recorded in eastern England, the Welsh
Marches, central and southern England. In view of the rarity of slight
univallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the transition
between Bronze Age and Iron Age communities, all examples which survive
comparatively well and have potential for the recovery of further
archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most
examples belonging to the period 2400 to 1500 BC. They were constructed as
earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple
burials.
Despite slight damage to its ramparts, Stanborough Camp Iron Age hillfort
survives well. Its ramparts, surrounding ditch and interior contain
archaeological and environmental information relating to this strategic
location and the landscape in which it functioned. Despite the reduction of
its mound, the bowl barrow within the fort retains information relating to its
construction and use.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Wall, J, The Victoria History of the County, (1906), 605-7
Wall, J, The Victoria History of the County, (1906), 605-7
Slater, T, 'Transactions of the Devonshire Association' in Controlling the South Hams: The Anglo Saxon Burh at Halwell, , Vol. 123, (1991), 57-58

Source: Historic England

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