Ancient Monuments

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New Rake lead mines 600m south east of Rowter Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Castleton, Derbyshire

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Latitude: 53.3351 / 53°20'6"N

Longitude: -1.7947 / 1°47'40"W

OS Eastings: 413770.852905

OS Northings: 382041.56902

OS Grid: SK137820

Mapcode National: GBR HYXW.85

Mapcode Global: WHCCL.DFML

Entry Name: New Rake lead mines 600m south east of Rowter Farm

Scheduled Date: 14 March 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019004

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29965

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Castleton

Built-Up Area: Castleton

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Castleton St Edmund

Church of England Diocese: Derby


The monument includes the earthwork, buried, standing and rock cut remains of
New Rake, a post-medieval lead mining complex which includes the site of
Hurdlow Stile Mine. The term rake is given to extraction and ore processing
features which follow the line of a lead bearing vein. This was a typical form
of lead mining in the Peak District. New Rake is aligned roughly east to west
on high limestone moorland south east of Rowter Farm.
Geologically, the lead bearing vein cuts across the Bee Low Limestones but New
Rake terminates at its eastern end, at an outcrop of Cave Dale Lava.
Workings on New Rake, formerly known as Hurdlow and New Rakes, have been
documented in Ore Accounts and other documents from at least 1711. In 1725 it
is recorded that one of the mine owners at New Rake, Thomas Pendleton, was
bought before the courts for non-payment of 19 shillings and four pence for
blacksmith work. The mines would have been worked under the jurisdiction of
the Barmote Courts, the legal administrative unit governing Derbyshire lead
mining. The Derbyshire system of mining was largely based on local mining
customs and consisted of individual groups of miners or small mining companies
working relatively short lengths of the vein.
The monument is linear in plan and survives as a series of earthwork, buried,
standing and rock cut remains which include lengths of hillocks (mounds of
waste rock which either contain insufficient quantities of ore to warrant
extraction or waste from ore crushing activity) interspersed with the remains
of mining shafts and open cuts (veins worked open to daylight), ore storage
bins, water leats, water storage ponds and an engine shaft.
Centred at national grid reference SK13808200 is a concentrated area of
activity which marks the site of Hurdlow Stile Mine. This area is completely
enclosed by a belland yard wall (a wall built around a processing area in
order to prevent cattle straying and eating grass contaminated by lead) and
includes a number of capped shafts, including three climbing shafts, as well
as water storage ponds, an ore storage bin and open cuts. The water storage
ponds probably originated as natural swallow holes or boggy areas.
A second concentrated area of activity is centred at national grid reference
SK13558200. Here two mining shafts lie to the east of a third lidded shaft
known as James Halls' engine shaft. James Halls' Engine is documented from at
least 1748 when the Barmasters books (records kept by the executive officer of
the Barmote Court) record that George Hadfield had not paid his share of the
costs for the running or upkeep of the engine.
Lines of hillocks and large open cuts characterise the remainder of the
monument both east, west and between the concentrated areas of activity. These
remains are largely untouched and clearly illustrate the extraction and
processing techniques employed along the rake. Towards the western end of the
monument and adjacent to the southern boundary is a large circular water
storage pond which is surrounded by a purpose built dry stone wall. The pond
probably took advantage of a natural hollow, but a water drainage channel
links the pond to the lead mining remains which lie slightly further to the
north. Between the pond and the ore extraction remains a section of the water
channel has been infilled to provide a crossing point which is still used as a
farm track today.
New Rake is intersected at depth by the Speedwell Level which was first worked
in 1771. Here, a series of natural stream caverns were intersected by mining
levels and lead ore was obtained from several veins accessible only via the
natural caverns. One of the climbing shafts at Hurdlow Stile Mine has been
reopened in recent times for exploration and educational purposes and was
found to connect, at a depth of approximately 152.4m, with Speedwell Caverns
and Mine.
All modern fencing and stiles are excluded from the scheduling although the
ground beneath these is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Approximately 10,000 lead industry sites are estimated to survive in England,
spanning nearly three millennia of mining history from the later Bronze Age
(c.1000 BC) until the present day, though before the Roman period it is likely
to have been on a small scale. Two hundred and fifty one lead industry sites,
representing approximately 2.5% of the estimated national archaeological
resource for the industry, have been identified as being of national
importance. This selection of nationally important monuments, compiled and
assessed through a comprehensive survey of the lead industry, is designed to
represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and
regional diversity.
Lead rakes are linear mining features along the outcrop of a lead vein
resulting from the extraction of relatively shallow ore. They can be broadly
divided between: rakes consisting of continuous rock-cut clefts; rakes
consisting of lines of interconnecting or closely-spaced shafts with
associated spoil tips and other features; and rakes whose surface features
were predominantly produced by reprocessing of earlier waste tips (normally in
the 19th century). In addition, some sites contain associated features such as
coes (miners' huts), gin circles (the circular track used by a horse operating
simple winding or pumping machinery), and small-scale ore-dressing areas and
structures, often marked by tips of dressing waste.
The majority of rake workings are believed to be of 16th-18th century date,
but earlier examples are likely to exist, and mining by rock-cut cleft has
again become common in the 20th century. Rakes are the main field monuments
produced by the earlier and technologically simpler phases of lead mining.
They are very common in Derbyshire, where they illustrate the character of
mining dominated by regionally distinctive Mining Laws, and moderately common
in the Pennine and Mendip orefields; they are rare in other lead mining areas.
A sample of the better preserved examples from each region, illustrating the
typological range, will merit protection.

The mining remains on New Rake are particularly well preserved and include a
diverse range of components relating to the mining of this vein. Rake workings
are now rare and this example is one of the best preserved in the Peak
The standing, earthwork, buried and rock cut remains provide evidence
for both the historical and technological development of what was once a far
more extensive, multi-period mining landscape. The wide range of mining and
processing features combined with the historical documentation will enable the
development of the mine working and its chronological range to be
reconstructed. The long rake, shafts, hillocks and other extraction features
provide evidence for successive methods of extraction whilst other processing
areas will contain deposits showing the effectiveness of these techniques. The
mining remains also provide an insight into the Derbyshire Barmote Court
system of mining and the constraints this imposed on the miners of the area.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Ford, D, Rieuwerts, JH (eds), Lead Mining in the Peak District, (1983), 39-42
Plan held in Peak Park Office, Heathcote, C, New Rake Near Castleton Derbyshire, (1996)
Plan held in Peak Park Office, Heathcote, C, New Rake Near Castleton Derbyshire, (1996)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Bevan, B and Sidebottom, P, Rowter Farm, Castleton and Woodside Farm Archaeological Survey, (1995)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Bevan, B and Sidebottom, P, Rowter Farm, Castleton and Woodside Farm Archaeological Survey, (1995)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Rieuwerts, JH, Foreside Rake, New Rake and associated small veins in Castleton,
Report held in Peak Park Office, Rieuwerts, JH, Foreside Rake, New Rake and associated small veins in Castleton,

Source: Historic England

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