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Medieval manorial fishponds at The Banks

A Scheduled Monument in Burton Overy, Leicestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.5772 / 52°34'37"N

Longitude: -1.0028 / 1°0'9"W

OS Eastings: 467673.542193

OS Northings: 298175.743682

OS Grid: SP676981

Mapcode National: GBR 9PQ.K8W

Mapcode Global: WHFKX.KHP3

Entry Name: Medieval manorial fishponds at The Banks

Scheduled Date: 9 October 1981

Last Amended: 19 March 1999

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018835

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30251

County: Leicestershire

Civil Parish: Burton Overy

Built-Up Area: Burton Overy

Traditional County: Leicestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Leicestershire

Church of England Parish: Carlton Curlieu and Burton Overy

Church of England Diocese: Leicester

Details

The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of two medieval
manorial fishponds and medieval garden remains situated on a westerly slope
immediately east of a stream in an area known as The Banks.

The fishponds comprised a part of the medieval gardens known to exist from
documentary sources and the formal layout of the earthworks visible on the
site. The ponds are defined by parallel banks, lie 60m apart and are
orientated on a NNE-SSW axis.

The eastern pond is situated at the top of the slope and measures up to 40m in
length and 10m in width. Its eastern bank is 65m in length, 8m in width and a
maximum of 2.5m in height. At its southern end the bank has been reduced in
height to 0.3m for a length of approximately 25m. The bank forming the western
side of the pond is 38m in length, 7m in width and 2m in height. A faint bank
continuing for 30m on the same axis from its southern end probably represents
one side of a drainage channel leading from the pond. A second pond 60m in
length, 13m in width and 2m in depth is cut into the base of the slope with a
retaining bank on its eastern side. A section of leat connecting the southern
end of the pond to the stream is defined by a narrow channel up to 0.8m in
width, 0.6m in depth and 10m in length. The southern side of the slope between
the ponds shows faint traces of earlier medieval cultivation in the form of
ridge and furrow.

In the Domesday survey of 1086 the village of Burtone or Burton Overy was in
the ownership of Hugh de Grentmesnil. After his death it passed to Robert,
Earl of Leicester, eventually being divided between the sisters of the last
male heir on his death in 1204. One of these was the wife of William de
Ferrers, Earl of Derby. In 1307 Robert de la Warde was recorded as having held
a manor at Burton from the Ferrers family. A document dated to 1307 clearly
mentions `...the great garden on the west' and records the payment of a dower
to Ida, the widow of Robert de la Warde. The size and nature of the ponds and
garden features suggests that they were located in relation to a building of
high status such as a manor house, and together with the documentary
references, that it was probably that of the Ferrers family.

All fences are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these
features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A fishpond is an artificially created pool of slow moving freshwater
constructed for the purpose of cultivating, breeding and storing fish to
provide a constant and sustainable supply of food. They may be dug into the
ground, embanked above ground level, or formed by placing a dam across a
narrow valley. Groups of up to twelve ponds variously arranged in a single
line or in a cluster and joined by leats have been recorded. The ponds may be
of the same size or of several different sizes with each pond being stocked
with different species or ages of fish. The size of the pond was related to
function, with large ponds thought to have had a storage capability whilst
smaller, shallower ponds were used for fish cultivation and breeding.
Fishponds were maintained by a water management system which included inlet
and outlet channels carrying water from a river or stream, a series of sluices
set into the bottom of the dam and along the channels and leats, and an
overflow leat which controlled fluctuations in water flow and prevented
flooding.
Buildings for use by fishermen or for the storage of equipment, and islands
possibly used for fishing, wildfowl management or as shallow spawning areas,
are also recorded.
The tradition of constructing and using fishponds in England began during the
medieval period and peaked in the 12th century. They were largely built by the
wealthy sectors of society with monastic institutions and royal residences
often having large and complex fishponds. The difficulties of obtaining fresh
meat in the winter and the value placed on fish as a food source and for
status may have been factors which favoured the development of fishponds and
which made them so valuable. The practice of constructing fishponds declined
after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century although in some
areas it continued into the 17th century. Most fishponds fell out of use
during the post-medieval period although some were re-used as ornamental
features in 19th and early 20th century landscape parks or gardens, or as
watercress beds.
Documentary sources provide a wealth of information about the way fishponds
were stocked and managed. The main species of fish kept were eel, tench,
pickerel, bream, perch, and roach. Large quantities of fish could be supplied
at a time. Once a year, probably in the spring, ponds were drained and
cleared.
Fishponds are widely scattered throughout England and extend into Scotland and
Wales. The majority are found in central, eastern and southern parts and in
areas with heavy clay soils. Fewer fishponds are found in coastal areas and
parts of the country rich in natural lakes and streams where other sources of
fresh fish were available. Although 17th century manuals suggest that areas of
waste ground were suitable for fishponds, in practice it appears that most
fishponds were located close to villages, manors or monasteries or within
parks so that a watch could be kept on them to prevent poaching. Although
approximately 2000 examples are recorded nationally, this is thought to be
only a small proportion of those in existence in medieval times. Despite being
relatively common, fishponds are important for their associations with other
classes of medieval monument and in providing evidence of site economy.

Many early houses had gardens associated with them. The creation of gardens
has an early history in England, the earliest examples known being associated
with Roman villas. However, the major development in gardening took place in
the late medieval and early post-medieval periods when the idea of the garden
as a `pleasure ground' developed. Early gardens take a variety of forms. Some
involved significant water management works to create elaborate water gardens
which could include a series of ponds or even ornamental canal systems. At
other sites flower gardens were favoured, with planting in elaborately shaped
and geometrically laid out beds. Planting arrangements were often complemented
by urns, statues and other garden furniture. Such sites were often provided
with raised walkways or prospect mounds which provided vantage points from
which the garden design could be seen and fully appreciated. Whilst gardens
were probably a common accompaniment to high status houses from the late
medieval period onwards, continued occupation of houses and related use and
re-modelling of gardens in response to changing fashions means that early
remains rarely survive undisturbed. Gardens provide a valuable insight into
contemporary aesthetics and views about how the landscape could be modified to
enhance the surroundings. Their design often mirrors elements of the design of
the associated house; particularly following the symmetry of the buildings. In
view of their rarity, great variety of form, and importance for understanding
high status houses and their occupants, all surviving examples of early date
will be identified to be nationally important.

The remains of the fishponds and formal gardens associated with the medieval
manorial site at The Banks survive as a series of earthworks and buried
deposits. The formal garden remains represent an extremely rare survival in
that contemporary documentary sources show them to be demonstrably early in
comparison to other similar sites. The earthworks remain largely undisturbed
by subsequent activity with the result that the preservation of archaeological
deposits relating to their construction and use will be good. In addition,
waterlogging in the area of the ponds suggests a high level of survival for
organic remains which might contain information about the economy of the site
and its contemporary environment. The earthworks also offer a good opportunity
to understand the development and status of the manorial site whilst providing
an important insight into the wealth and social status of its occupants in the
medieval period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hartley, R F, Burton Overy, (1983)
Nichols, J, The History and Antiquities of the County of Leicestershire, (1800)
Page, W , The Victoria History of the County of Leicester, (1964)
Other
Farnham, G.F., Leicestershire Medieval Village Notes, 1933,

Source: Historic England

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