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Two Roman camps 350m north east of Lodge Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Calverton, Nottinghamshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0515 / 53°3'5"N

Longitude: -1.0841 / 1°5'2"W

OS Eastings: 461491.235706

OS Northings: 350864.364576

OS Grid: SK614508

Mapcode National: GBR 9HT.NQK

Mapcode Global: WHFHK.BK0H

Entry Name: Two Roman camps 350m north east of Lodge Farm

Scheduled Date: 16 April 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018264

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29931

County: Nottinghamshire

Civil Parish: Calverton

Traditional County: Nottinghamshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Nottinghamshire

Church of England Parish: Calverton

Church of England Diocese: Southwell and Nottingham

Details

The monument includes the buried remains of two Roman camps, situated on the
west side of the valley of the Dover Beck, a tributary of the River Trent. The
camps had open views of the surrounding landscape except to the north west
where it is blocked by rising ground. This high ground has been enhanced in
recent years by a large waste heap from Calverton Mine.
Although no earthworks survive, the buried remains of the monument show
clearly as cropmarks on aerial photographs. Both camps are sub-rectangular in
shape but are of very different sizes with the smaller one being enclosed by
the larger.
The larger, or outer camp is the earlier of the two but its complete extent is
not known. The north west corner is overlain by the modern road, and the low
lying ground of Oxton Bogs, beside the Dover Beck obscures cropmark evidence
on the north east side. The camp is defined by ditches but is unusual in as
much as the ditches do not follow the line of the slope, the north west and
south east sides cross the natural contours. The camp measures just less than
280m from north west to south east by 285m north east to south west and
encloses an area of at least 8ha. Access would have been gained through a gate
in the centre of the south west side with another possible gate in the north
west side. A slight gap in the south east side, opposite the south east gate
of the second camp, may represent another gate. It is not unusual for Roman
camps to be realigned at an entrance and this may explain why the south east
side of the camp bows outwards slightly at this point.
The second camp is much smaller in size, enclosing an area of 1.7ha. It is
defined by a broader ditch than the larger camp but its layout is irregular.
The north east and south west sides are 150m and 122m long respectively and
are parallel, but the south east side, which is 115m long, is not at right
angles to them. The north west side changes direction immediately west of its
central gate. Entrances are apparent approximately half way along each side
of the camp and are guarded by linear ditches which lie approximately 10m
outside the perimeter of the camp. The north east side of the smaller camp
lies on the edge of the valley scarp and its precise orientation seems likely
to have been determined by this natural feature.
All modern fences and gates are excluded from the scheduling, although the
ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Roman camps are rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosures which were
constructed and used by Roman soldiers either when out on campaign or as
practice camps; most campaign camps were only temporary overnight bases and
few were used for longer periods. They were bounded by a single earthen
rampart and outer ditch and in plan are always straight-sided with rounded
corners. Normally they have between one and four entrances, although as many
as eleven have been recorded. Such entrances were usually centrally placed in
the sides of the camp and were often protected by additional defensive
outworks. Roman camps are found throughout much of England, although most
known examples lie in the midlands and north. Around 140 examples have been
identified and, as one of the various types of defensive enclosure built by
the Roman Army, particularly in hostile upland and frontier areas, they
provide an important insight into Roman military strategy and organisation.
All well-preserved examples are identified as being of national importance.

The two Roman camps 350m north east of Lodge Farm are rare examples of this
type of monument in Nottinghamshire. Although no earthworks survive above
ground level the camps are clearly visible as a cropmarks on aerial
photographs. This illustrates the survival of remains beneath the ground
surface. Taken as a whole the monument will considerably enhance our
understanding of the Roman occupation of the area and the impact it had on the
wider landscape.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Welfare, H, Swan, V, Roman Camps in England: The Field Evidence, (1995)

Source: Historic England

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