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Romano-British settlement and field system, 600m south of Roystone Grange

A Scheduled Monument in Ballidon, Derbyshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.1025 / 53°6'8"N

Longitude: -1.7031 / 1°42'11"W

OS Eastings: 419974.696261

OS Northings: 356182.471995

OS Grid: SK199561

Mapcode National: GBR 47S.G76

Mapcode Global: WHCDS.T85X

Entry Name: Romano-British settlement and field system, 600m south of Roystone Grange

Scheduled Date: 10 June 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018087

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29829

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Ballidon

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Bradbourne All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Derby

Details

The monument includes the remains of a building, interpreted as a farmhouse of
the Romano-British period, together with associated terraces and fragments of
enclosure walls. The farmstead is located at the edge of near-level ground,
overlooking a dry limestone valley.
The farmhouse building is now visible as a platform in unimproved ground.
Partial excavation of the site during the 1980s revealed the post holes of a
building on the platform. The building is also associated with orthostat
(upright boulder) walls, indicating a domestic enclosure. To the north and
east of the building platform are small stone-cleared and enhanced natural
terraces together with earthen lynchets, indicating agricultural cultivation
of the immediate area. Excavation and archaeological sampling during the 1980s
revealed artefacts dating the settlement to the Romano-British period. In
addition, quantities of prehistoric flints were found below the Romano-British
levels.
The construction of many walls in the immediate area includes constructional
elements of both the Romano-British and medieval periods. To the south west of
the settlement site is a semi-ruinous drystone wall of rugged construction. At
least the foundation levels of the wall are interpreted to be of medieval
date, which may also apply to some of the higher level courses of its
construction. The area of protection includes the foundation levels of this
wall where it adjoins the Romano-British period settlement.
All fences, gates and posts are excluded from the scheduling, although
the ground beneath is included. The drystone wall to the south west of the
settlement is also excluded from the scheduling, except for its foundation
courses and the ground beneath them which are included together with a 2m
margin. The wall foundations are included because of their origins in the
Romano-British period.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The Romano-British settlement 600m south of Roystone Grange is a good example
of this class of monument, few of which survive on the less cultivated ground
of the limestone Peak District. This example is important because of the
survival of a diversity of features relating to settlement of the period
and the incorporation of the foundations of an enclosure wall related to a
medieval grange, located about 350m to the north, which is the subject of a
separate scheduling.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hodges, R, Wall-to-wall History: the story of Roystone Grange, (1991)
Hodges, R, Wall-to-wall History: the story of Roystone Grange, (1991)

Source: Historic England

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