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Romano-British settlement and field system immediately north west of Roystone Grange

A Scheduled Monument in Ballidon, Derbyshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.1086 / 53°6'31"N

Longitude: -1.7029 / 1°42'10"W

OS Eastings: 419988.075636

OS Northings: 356869.590099

OS Grid: SK199568

Mapcode National: GBR 47S.29D

Mapcode Global: WHCDS.T495

Entry Name: Romano-British settlement and field system immediately north west of Roystone Grange

Scheduled Date: 10 June 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018086

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29828

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Ballidon

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Bradbourne All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Derby

Details

The monument includes the remains of a building, interpreted as a farmhouse of
the Romano-British period, together with outbuildings, terraces, and fragments
of enclosure walls associated with the farmstead. The farmstead is located at
the base of sloping ground in a dry limestone valley and may have been part of
a small hamlet or village in the Roystone valley.
The farmhouse building is visible as a platform terrace, having a revetment
wall on the downslope (eastern side) constructed from orthostats (upright
boulders). Post holes found during an excavation in the 1980s provides
evidence for the construction of the farmhouse. The position of these post
holes is now marked by eight wooden posts. The building measured approximately
15m by 12m. A later phase of building was also discovered, which utilised
limestone slabs and blocks in a drystone construction. Associated with the
settlement are fragments of orthostat walling to the north, west and east
forming a small domestic enclosure around the building.
To the immediate south of the building is a terraced area, also partially
excavated during the 1980s. This area revealed evidence for a wooden
structure associated with the farmstead, together with artefacts, including
pottery and coins, indicating a Romano-British date. This structure may have
been a dwelling and measured about 15m by 6m, with a yard downslope. Further
terracing and fragments of field walls in this area indicate that more
extensive remains are likely to exist to the south and west of the excavated
areas. These areas are likely to include the remains or one or more buildings.
The construction of many walls in the immediate area, including those
contained within the area of protection, contains constructional elements of
the Romano-British period.
All fences, gates, posts and stiles are excluded from the scheduling, although
the ground beneath these features is included. All drystone walls are
also excluded, except for their foundation courses and the ground beneath them
which are included together with a 2m margin. The wall foundations are
included because of their Romano-British origins.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The monument is a good example of a Romano-British period settlement complex
of which only a few survive on the less cultivated ground of the limestone
Peak District. This example is important because of the extensive survival of
features relating to settlement of the period. The evidence for the survival
of further unexcavated buildings means that the site will retain information
about its construction and usage and much buried material is likely to
survive.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hodges, R, Wall-to-wall History: the story of Roystone Grange, (1991)

Source: Historic England

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