Ancient Monuments

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Cackle Mackle and Stadford Hollow lead mines on Longstone Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Wardlow, Derbyshire

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Latitude: 53.2621 / 53°15'43"N

Longitude: -1.7132 / 1°42'47"W

OS Eastings: 419227.705648

OS Northings: 373941.975589

OS Grid: SK192739

Mapcode National: GBR JZGQ.WB

Mapcode Global: WHCD0.N8DJ

Entry Name: Cackle Mackle and Stadford Hollow lead mines on Longstone Moor

Scheduled Date: 3 August 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017754

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30938

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Wardlow

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Longstone St Giles

Church of England Diocese: Derby


The monument includes the structural, earthwork and buried remains of a
complex multi-period mining area typical of the Derbyshire lead industry. The
monument lies within two separate areas on Longstone Moor. At least two named
mines operated in this area, the Cackle Mackle and Stadford Hollow mines.
The largest area of the monument lies between two minor roads. It includes the
remains of the former Cackle Mackle mines, and incorporates a complex array of
multi-period mining remains which demonstrate the development of mining
techniques over several centuries. The Cackle Mackle mine is documented as
working from the mid-17th century until the mid-19th century. Remains include
rakes (linear workings on a lead-bearing vein), opencuts and shafts, spoil
tips and dressing areas where ore was processed. This part of the monument is
characterised throughout by intensive workings. In the northern part of this
area, north of a field wall and footpath, are further well-preserved
earthworks, some of which are overlain by field walls. Dense clusters of small
shallow pits up to 1.5m diameter and narrow opencuts are visible. There are a
number of large shafts, several of which cut through earlier workings. Most
workings clearly follow lead-bearing veins on a roughly north east-south west
alignment and include shaft mounds, spoil heaps and dressing waste. A large
opencut survives near drystone constructions and large earthworks, one of
which is right-angled. The central part of the Cackle Mackle mine includes
many shafts of varied size and form, with spoilheaps, dressing waste and other
earthworks. The outline of a gin circle (the remains of horse-powered winding)
survives clearly in a field boundary, next to a large rectangular shaft. A
trackway, thought to be contemporary with the mines, survives on the line of
the present wall and footpath. In the south, two well-preserved rakes run
east-west for over 1km and meet in a`Y' shape, terminating in a large shaft at
the south west corner of the monument. These rakes incorporate workings of
shaft and opencut form, with associated spoilheaps.
The second area, separated from the first by a minor road, includes the
remains of the Stadford Hollow mine. Four well-preserved shaft mounds survive,
each associated with a ruined coe (a small storage structure).
Immediately south east of the shafts are low earthworks including spoilheaps
and a small gin circle. It is expected that buried remains will include
dressing floors (ore processing areas), which will contribute to our
understanding of the operation of the mine.
The Stadford Hollow mine operated from the very early 16th century to the mid-
19th century. It was a small mine, whose low-mechanisation arrangement was
typical of the Derbyshire lead industry.
All modern field boundaries and road surfaces are excluded from the
scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Approximately 10,000 lead industry sites are estimated to survive in England,
spanning nearly three millennia of mining history from the later Bronze Age
(c.1000 BC) until the present day, though before the Roman period it is likely
to have been on a small scale. Two hundred and fifty one lead industry sites,
representing approximately 2.5% of the estimated national archaeological
resource for the industry, have been identified as being of national
importance. This selection of nationally important monuments, compiled and
assessed through a comprehensive survey of the lead industry, is designed to
represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and
regional diversity.
Lead rakes are linear mining features along the outcrop of a lead vein
resulting from the extraction of relatively shallow ore. They can be broadly
divided between: rakes consisting of continuous rock-cut clefts; rakes
consisting of lines of interconnecting or closely-spaced shafts with
associated spoil tips and other features; and rakes whose surface features
were predominantly produced by reprocessing of earlier waste tips (normally in
the 19th century). In addition, some sites contain associated features such as
coes (miners' huts), gin circles (the circular track used by a horse operating
simple winding or pumping machinery), and small-scale ore-dressing areas and
structures, often marked by tips of dressing waste.
The majority of rake workings are believed to be of 16th-18th century date,
but earlier examples are likely to exist, and mining by rock-cut cleft has
again become common in the 20th century. Rakes are the main field monuments
produced by the earlier and technologically simpler phases of lead mining.
They are very common in Derbyshire, where they illustrate the character of
mining dominated by regionally distinctive Mining Laws, and moderately common
in the Pennine and Mendip orefields; they are rare in other lead mining areas.
A sample of the better preserved examples from each region, illustrating the
typological range, will merit protection.

The Cackle Mackle and Stadford Hollow Mines represent a particularly complete
and well-preserved multi-period mining area, with a wide range of features.
The remains are particularly characteristic of Derbyshire, where low levels of
mechanisation were employed at mines to a late date and intensive shallow
workings were commonplace. Stadford Hollow has been described as 'the best
example in Derbyshire of a small vertical mine'.
The variety, density and complexity of archaeological remains will provide
valuable information about extraction and processing technologies, and their
long-term development. Underground remains at Stadford Hollow are known to be
well preserved, with machinery still in place.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Parker, H M, Willies, L, Peakland Lead Mines and Miners, (1979), 43,44
Suggestions on scheduling, Smith, K (Peak Park Archaeologist), Letter, (1990)

Source: Historic England

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