Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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Bronze Age enclosure on Nore Hill

A Scheduled Monument in Chelsham and Farleigh, Surrey

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Latitude: 51.299 / 51°17'56"N

Longitude: -0.0218 / 0°1'18"W

OS Eastings: 538006.849441

OS Northings: 157401.605874

OS Grid: TQ380574

Mapcode National: GBR KK.Z14

Mapcode Global: VHGS0.KMT1

Entry Name: Bronze Age enclosure on Nore Hill

Scheduled Date: 23 February 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017722

English Heritage Legacy ID: 31386

County: Surrey

Civil Parish: Chelsham and Farleigh

Traditional County: Surrey

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Surrey

Church of England Parish: Chelsham St Leonard

Church of England Diocese: Southwark


The monument includes the surviving part of a Bronze Age enclosure situated
on a clay, sand and gravel-capped chalk spur which projects to the west of a
ridge of the North Downs.

The enclosure, which is sometimes described as being of the Ram's Hill type,
originally took the form of a roughly north west-south east aligned oval area
of around 3ha, bounded by ramparts. However, the north western edge of the
enclosure has been destroyed by past gravel extraction, and this area is
therefore not included in the scheduling. Elsewhere, the ramparts survive as a
partly levelled bank approximately 5m wide and 0.5m high, surrounded by a
mainly infilled, 4m wide ditch. To the north east, the main ramparts are
flanked by traces of an outer bank and ditch. During the 1940s, prior to a
single episode of ploughing, at least 1m of material was removed from the
banks and spread over the surrounding ground. A possible entrance through the
ramparts has been identified on the southern side of the monument.

The interior of the enclosure survives as an area of uneven ground, and traces
of contemporary buildings, pits and associated remains will survive here in
the form of below ground archaeological features. An investigation of the
enclosure during the 1980s indicated that it was constructed during the Late
Bronze Age (900-700 BC). Finds of artefacts dating to the Iron Age and Roman
periods suggest that the monument may have been the subject of later
remodelling and reuse.

The enclosure has been partly disturbed by the construction and subsequent
demolition of a bungalow near its eastern edge, and by a now disused, roughly
north west-south east aligned minor road, known as Barnard Road, which crosses
the monument.

Excluded from the scheduling is the stock-watering trough and its footings
situated in the south eastern sector of the monument, although the ground
beneath it is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The late Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1000-600 BC) was a period of rapid
technological change and agricultural intensification. These changes, probably
stimulated by population growth, included major re-organisation of the
landscape in many areas, with new boundaries and field systems being laid out.
Settlement sites from this period provide important evidence for understanding
these changes, but examples are rare and difficult to identify. A small number
of enclosed settlements are known from the period in South-East England,
including several hill-top sites which are thought to have been of high
status, and to have acted as centres for the surrounding region. Sites of this
type are known from Carshalton, Surrey, Highstead, Kent, and Marshall's Hill,
Berkshire: Nore Hill is considered to belong to this group.

Despite some damage, the majority of this monument survives well for its type
and date and, as a well-preserved example of a rare site type, it is
considered to be of national importance. Part excavation has shown that it
contains archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its
construction and part use.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Skelton, A, 'Surrey Archaeological Collections' in Nore Hill, Chelsham: A Newly Discovered Prehistoric Enclosure, , Vol. 78, (1987), 43-54
Surrey County Council Planning Department, Aerial Photograph of Nore Hill, (1988)

Source: Historic England

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