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Wayside cross 70m south of St Uny's Church, Lelant

A Scheduled Monument in St. Ives, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.188 / 50°11'16"N

Longitude: -5.436 / 5°26'9"W

OS Eastings: 154826.183003

OS Northings: 37651.752178

OS Grid: SW548376

Mapcode National: GBR DXY5.YLM

Mapcode Global: VH12M.QJKQ

Entry Name: Wayside cross 70m south of St Uny's Church, Lelant

Scheduled Date: 1 December 1960

Last Amended: 8 December 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017630

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30428

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Ives

Built-Up Area: Lelant

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Lelant

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross situated in the cemetery to
the south of St Uny's Church.
The cross survives as an upright granite shaft with a round, `wheel' head,
mounted in a rectangular granite base. The overall height of the monument is
1.8m. The principal faces are orientated north-south. The north principal
face bears a relief figure of Christ with outstretched arms, the legs and
feet extending onto the top of the shaft; a groove across the neck of the
cross separates the feet from the rest of the figure. There is a narrow bead
around the outer edge of the head on this face. The south principal face is
plain, the upper third has been fractured, and there is a hole in the upper
part of this face. There is a further hole on the east side of the head and
both these holes are probably the result of an earlier reuse of the cross as
a gatepost. The shaft measures 1.1m high by 0.32m wide and is 0.18m thick at
the base widening to 0.23m at the top. The shaft is cemented into a modern
granite base. This base measures 0.94m east-west by 0.82m north-south and is
0.24m high.
This wayside cross was found by the historian Langdon in 1896 built into a
hedge in the lane on the west side of the churchyard. It was re-erected in
its present position in the cemetery in 1906 and is Listed Grade II*.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The wayside cross 70m south of St Uny's Church has survived reasonably well
as a good example of a `wheel' headed cross, with a rare figure of Christ
motif on one face. Its reuse as a gatepost at some time in the past and as
building stone, and its subsequent rediscovery and re-erection in the
cemetery early this century, demonstrates well the changing attitudes to
religion and the impact of crosses on the local landscape since the medieval
period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Other
Consulted July 1996, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN No.30165,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 33/43/part 53; Pathfinder 1364
Source Date: 1989
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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