Ancient Monuments

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The Wish Tower: martello tower no 73

A Scheduled Monument in Meads, East Sussex

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Latitude: 50.7613 / 50°45'40"N

Longitude: 0.2861 / 0°17'9"E

OS Eastings: 561325.709851

OS Northings: 98235.712951

OS Grid: TV613982

Mapcode National: GBR MVG.15G

Mapcode Global: FRA C7H2.F91

Entry Name: The Wish Tower: martello tower no 73

Scheduled Date: 6 November 1959

Last Amended: 7 September 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017357

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32262

County: East Sussex

Electoral Ward/Division: Meads

Built-Up Area: Eastbourne

Traditional County: Sussex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): East Sussex

Church of England Parish: Eastbourne All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Chichester


The monument includes a martello tower, set within a dry moat and a portion of
the outer glacis, situated between King Edward's Parade and the promenade, on
elevated ground, overlooking the beach to the south west of Eastbourne Pier.

The tower, which is Listed Grade II, was the most westerly of the original 73
towers constructed along the south coast in 1805-6, although a final tower,
no 74, was added to the chain in around 1810, at Seaford. The Wish Tower was
the last in a series of six towers, designed to guard the vulnerable coastline
between Langney Point and Eastbourne. The other five towers of the group have
not survived, but the Eastbourne Redoubt, constructed for their support,
stands around 1.7km to the north east.

The slightly elliptical, brick built tower measures up to around 13m in
diameter and was constructed on three levels. It stood to a height of about
10m, with battered (inwardly sloping) walls, designed to deflect cannon shot,
ranging in thickness from 1.6m to 4m, the most substantial section being on
the seaward side to give greater protection from attack. A cement render was
applied to the outer surface of the tower to protect the brickwork, and this
has been restored. Internally, a thick central column rises from the base to
the top of the tower, from which springs the barrel vaulted first floor
ceiling which supports the gun platform on the roof.

The upper half of the tower protrudes above the lip of the brick retaining
wall of the moat, which encircles the base at a distance of around 12m and was
intended to protect the tower from cannon fire and ground assault. An earthen
bank, or glacis, using soil excavated to form the moat, was constructed
against the outer face of the retaining wall, and this extends for a distance
of up to 40m, beyond which the natural slope continues to the north.

Work to demolish the tower began during the 1950s, resulting in the loss of
part of the glacis and retaining wall to the south west, and the moat was
partly infilled after demolition work was halted.

Access into the tower is by way of a first floor doorway to the north west,
originally approached by a footbridge which spanned the moat. The section
nearest the tower was designed as a drawbridge, capable of being raised to
seal the entrance in times of attack. The bridge does not survive although
part of the drawbridge mechanism remains in place inside the tower. The door
is now reached by modern steps from ground level. A stone tablet, displaying
the number of the tower, remains above the door. An additional, ground floor
entrance was inserted, below the original doorway, during a later phase in the
development of the tower, but this has since been blocked and externally

The first floor was originally divided into three rooms by wooden partitions,
and provided accommodation for the garrison of 24 men and one officer. Two
fireplaces heated the rooms, which were lit by two windows to the north east
and south west. The eastern window was enlarged at a later date to provide an
additional entrance.

The ground floor was reached by a trap door near the main entrance, leading
down through a suspended wooden floor. The floor has been replaced by modern
timbers and access maintained via a modern spiral staircase. The ground floor
was used to store ammunition and supplies, and provision for these included a
single, vaulted magazine, partly recessed into the thickness of the outer
wall. At the entrance to the magazine, the original copper covered door
surround remains in place. A rainwater collection tank was constructed beneath
the floor, to supplement the water supply, and air vents, linking the ground
and first floors, were set into the thickness of the walls.

The open gun platform is reached from the first floor by an internal stone
staircase constructed in the thickest part of the tower wall. The circular
roof space was designed to accommodate a 24-pounder cannon, which had a range
of around 1.5km and could be turned through 360 degrees. The cannon was
mounted on a wooden carriage, supported on a central pivot and traversed, on
an inner and outer running rail, by a series of rope pulleys and iron
hauling-rings set into the parapet wall. The roof retains many of its original
features, including ammunition stores in the form of arched recesses, also set
into the encircling wall.

The tower was used during the later 19th and 20th century by the Coastguard,
and an observation post was added to the roof during World War II, although
this was subsequently removed. The tower, which houses a puppet museum, was
restored in the 1960s and 1970s, work which included the re-rendering of the
exterior brickwork and the replacement of the suspended timber floor.

A number of features are excluded from the scheduling; these are the public
lavatory to the north west of the tower, raised beds, the surfaces and edges
of all modern paths and steps, trellises, benches, lamp posts, handrails,
fences, signs and litter bins, the modern steps leading up to the first floor
entrance, the interior spiral stairs, and all other modern fixtures, fittings
and displays within the tower, and all components of the modern electrical
systems, although the ground beneath and/or the structures to which these
features are attached is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Martello towers are gun towers constructed to defend the vulnerable south
eastern coast of England against the threat of ship-borne invasion by
Napoleonic forces. Built as a systematic chain of defence in two phases,
between 1805-1810 along the coasts of East Sussex and Kent, and between 1808-
1812 along the coasts of Essex and Suffolk, the design of martello towers was
based on a fortified tower at Mortella Point in Corsica which had put up a
prolonged resistance to British forces in 1793. The towers take the form of
compact, free-standing circular buildings on three levels built of rendered
brick. The towers of the south coast were numbered 1-74 from east to west,
while those of the east coast were identified by a system of letters (A-Z, and
then AA-CC) from south to north.
Although they exhibit a marked uniformity of design, minor variations are
discernible between the southern and eastern groups and amongst individual
towers, due mainly to the practice of entrusting their construction to local
sub-contractors. Most southern towers are elliptical in plan, whilst the
eastern group are oval or cam-shaped externally, with axes at the base ranging
between 14.4m by 13.5m and 16.9m by 17.7m. All are circular internally, the
battered (inwardly sloping) walls of varying thicknesses, but with the
thickest section invariably facing the seaward side. Most stand to a height of
around 10m. Many martello towers are surrounded by dry moats originally
encircled by counterscarp banks, and/or have cunettes (narrower water
defences) situated at the foot of the tower wall. The ground floor was used
for storage, with accommodation for the garrison provided on the first floor,
and the main gun platform on the roof. The southern towers carried a single
24 pounder cannon, whilst the eastern line carried three guns (usually a 24
pounder cannon and two shorter guns or howitzers). Three large, circular ten-
gun towers known as redoubts were also constructed at particularly vulnerable
points, at Dymchurch, Eastbourne and Harwich. All three survive.
As the expected Napoleonic invasion attempt did not materialise, the defensive
strength of the martello tower system was never tested, and the tower design
was soon rendered obsolete by new developments in heavy artillery. Many were
abandoned and fell into decay or were demolished during the 19th century,
although some continued in use into the 20th century as signalling or
coastguard stations and a few saw use as look out points or gun emplacements
during the two World Wars. Of the original 74 towers on the south coast, 26
now survive, and of the 29 on the east coast, 17 now survive. Those which
survive well and display a diversity of original components are considered to
merit protection.

Martello tower no 73 survives well, and retains many of its original
components and associated features, including part of its glacis bank. It
represents one of a series of six low lying towers, originally constructed
along the beach at Eastbourne and, together with the Eastbourne Redoubt, it
therefore provides a significant contribution towards our understanding of the
strategic integration of the martello towers and associated fortifications,
and their role in the defence of Britain during the early 19th century.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Hughes, D E, The Wish Tower, Eastbourne - History and Guide, (1986)
Sutcliffe, S, Martello Towers, (1972)
Telling, RM, English Martello Towers: A Concise Guide, (1997)
The Conservation Practice, , South Coast Martello Towers - a report of survey, (1996)

Source: Historic England

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