Ancient Monuments

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Moated grange in White Hall Wood

A Scheduled Monument in Roughton, Lincolnshire

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Latitude: 53.176 / 53°10'33"N

Longitude: -0.1637 / 0°9'49"W

OS Eastings: 522824.553531

OS Northings: 365893.285484

OS Grid: TF228658

Mapcode National: GBR HRG.TP9

Mapcode Global: WHHKP.GF8K

Entry Name: Moated grange in White Hall Wood

Scheduled Date: 27 September 1999

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016968

English Heritage Legacy ID: 31637

County: Lincolnshire

Civil Parish: Roughton

Traditional County: Lincolnshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lincolnshire

Church of England Parish: Horncastle Group

Church of England Diocese: Lincoln


The monument includes a medieval moated site located in White Hall Wood which
is believed to be the site of Martin Grange. It is also believed that the
grange, or monastic farm, was associated with Kirkstead Abbey. At the end of
the 12th century a grange of Kirkstead Abbey was established at the western
end of the parish of Roughton when Roland of Woodhall gave his demense
woodland and assarts to the abbey in about 1196 to 1198. It may subsequently
have been the site of Whitehall, a property known to have been leased by Ralph
Lord Cromwell.

The monument takes the form of a moated island with external banks and
adjacent fishpond. The island is rectangular in plan, measuring 50m by 40m,
and is artificially raised above the surrounding ground level. Medieval
building debris has been recorded on the island, and a raised platform in the
centre of the island is believed to represent the site of a building. The
island is enclosed by a broad water-filled moat measuring 10m to 14m in width
and up to 1.5m deep. An earthen causeway which crosses the northern moat arm
is thought to represent the original access point.

The moat is lined by external banks on the southern and western moat arms. The
southern bank measures approximately 8m wide and stands up to 1m high. The
western bank, measuring 4m to 6m in width and standing to a height of
approximately 0.5m, is interrupted by a narrow channel representing part of
the site's water control system. At the north western corner of the moat a
channel leads northward to a roughly oval pond, measuring 20m by 8m and lying
parallel to the northern moat arm, which is thought to represent the remains
of a fishpond.

All fences and pheasant pens are excluded from the scheduling, although the
ground beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A monastic grange was a farm owned and run by a monastic community and
independent of the secular manorial system of communal agriculture and servile
labour. The function of granges was to provide food and raw materials for
consumption within the parent monastic house itself, and also to provide
surpluses for sale for profit. The first monastic granges appeared in the 12th
century but they continued to be constructed and used until the Dissolution.
This system of agriculture was pioneered by the Cistercian order but was soon
imitated by other orders. Some granges were worked by resident lay-brothers
(secular workers) of the order but others were staffed by non-resident
labourers. The majority of granges practised a mixed economy but some were
specialist in their function. Five types of grange are known: agrarian farms,
bercaries (sheep farms), vaccaries (cattle ranches), horse studs and
industrial complexes. A monastery might have more than one grange and the
wealthiest houses had many. Frequently a grange was established on lands
immediately adjacent to the monastery, this being known as the home grange.
Other granges, however, could be found wherever the monastic site held lands.
On occasion these could be located at some considerable distance from the
parent monastery. Granges are broadly comparable with contemporary secular
farms although the wealth of the parent house was frequently reflected in the
size of the grange and the layout and architectural embellishment of the
buildings. Additionally, because of their monastic connection, granges tend to
be much better documented than their secular counterparts. No region was
without monastic granges. The exact number of sites which originally existed
is not precisely known but can be estimated, on the basis of numbers of
monastic sites, at several thousand. Of these, however, only a small
percentage can be accurately located on the ground today. Of this group of
identifiable sites, continued intensive use of many has destroyed much of the
evidence of archaeological remains. In view of the importance of granges to
medieval rural and monastic life, all sites exhibiting good archaeological
survival are identified as nationally important.

The remains of the medieval moated grange at White Hall Wood survive well as a
series of earthworks and buried deposits. Waterlogging in the moat and
fishpond will preserve organic remains, such as timber, leather and seeds,
which will give an insight into domestic and economic activity on the site. In
addition the artificially raised ground of the island and its external banks
will preserve evidence of the land use prior to construction of the moat. The
association of the grange with Kirkstead Abbey contributes to an understanding
of the important inter-relationship of these contemporary components of the
wider medieval landscape.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Owen, D M, Church and society in medieval Lincolnshire, (1971), 60
Lincolnshire SMR, Li 40215, (1998)
NMR, 352778, (1998)

Source: Historic England

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