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Slade Hooton medieval settlement and moated site

A Scheduled Monument in Laughton-en-le-Morthen, Rotherham

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.398 / 53°23'52"N

Longitude: -1.2143 / 1°12'51"W

OS Eastings: 452337.752608

OS Northings: 389303.597157

OS Grid: SK523893

Mapcode National: GBR MYY4.WM

Mapcode Global: WHDDM.9VZF

Entry Name: Slade Hooton medieval settlement and moated site

Scheduled Date: 7 July 1999

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016789

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29948

County: Rotherham

Civil Parish: Laughton-en-le-Morthen

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): South Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Laughton-en-le-Morthen and Throapham

Church of England Diocese: Sheffield

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of the abandoned areas
of Slade Hooton medieval settlement and a moated site. The monument is
situated on a south facing slope overlooking Hooton Dike, a tributary of the
River Ryton, and is in two areas of protection.
Hotone or Slade Hooton is first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 where
it is documented as part of the manor of Laughton-en-le-Morthen and Troapham.
The land was held by Roger de Busli, one of the largest landholders of the
time. Sometime later in the medieval period two manors were established in
Slade Hooton. Court Rolls indicate that a secular manor was almost certainly
present by 1480. A monastic manor belonging to Roche Abbey is documented in
records dated to 1538. In the late 18th century the secular manor was
purchased by Richard Lumley Savile (later the sixth Earl of Scarbrough). The
monastic manor, together with others, was acquired by Richard Turke but was
sold in 1549 to Robert Saunderson. In 1723 this manor passed to Thomas Lumley
(later the third Earl of Scarbrough). It remains part of the Scarbrough
estate.
The monument survives as a series of earthworks and buried remains to the east
and west of Manor Farm. To the west of the farm the earthworks survive up to
1m in height and are evident as a row of six platforms which lie side by side
on an east-west alignment. The platforms, which are defined by low banks, are
roughly square in plan and measure between 16m and 20m across. Each platform
is interpreted as the site of a medieval building or toft with the low banks
representing the buried remains of walls. Extending north from each of the
platforms and continuing almost to the edge of the field are rectangular
enclosures or crofts. These are the width of the building platforms and
probably served as gardens for the occupants. Three of the crofts contain
small, sub-rectangular sunken areas which run the width of the enclosure and
measure between 13m and 16m north to south. These are interpreted as crew
yards in which cattle were penned in winter. Running east to west beyond the
northern end of the crofts is a banked terrace which extends across the width
of the area of protection. The terrace is approximately 10m wide, is defined
by a gentle slope along its southern edge and is interpreted as a terraced
track or back lane.
The earthworks adjacent to the eastern boundary of this field have been
degraded slightly by the sinking of a collection chamber approximately 30m
south east from the north eastern corner of the field, and by the laying of
hardcore just inside the field gate. However, the disturbance is minimal and
the earthworks still clearly show the layout of the settlement remains.
The row of house platforms extend in a straight line westwards from Abbey
Lane, indicating that the existing road may originally have continued on this
alignment. A bank running along the southern edge of the scheduling suggests
that a sunken track provided access to the buildings. The southern edge of the
track has been obscured or levelled during the construction of the relatively
modern property to the south.
In the field to the east of Manor Farm, north of Abbey Lane and adjacent to
the western field boundary, is a moated site. This includes a small sub-
rectangular island measuring approximately 8m by 11m which is enclosed by a
`U' shaped ditch. The southern side of the island has suffered some
disturbance, possibly in the form of post-medieval quarrying. This may explain
why the northern arm of the moat is approximately 4m wide and the southern arm
around 8m wide. Narrow channels measuring nearly 3m wide and 0.5m deep extend
from the north west and north east corners of the ditch. These run downslope
and would have acted as drainage channels feeding water to the moat. Although
there is no visible running water close by, a well which is situated on the
southern edge of monument does indicate the availability of ground water and
it may be this which fed both the well and the moat.
The moat is bounded on its east, south and west sides by an external bank
which survives to a height of approximately 0.4m and 11m wide. To the east of
the moat is a sub-rectangular enclosure measuring approximately 27m by 36m.
The western edge of this enclosure is formed from the external bank of the
moat and the southern edge by an extension to the moat's southern arm. The
eastern boundary bank of the enclosure extends approximately 24m north. There
is a second smaller sub-rectangular enclosure attached to the south east
corner, measuring approximately 22m by 19m. It is also defined by low banks.
The enclosures were possibly used to contain stock.
All modern animal food and water troughs, the area of hardcore and the
collection chamber are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
gradually evolved during the last 1500 years or more.
This monument lies in the Pennine Slope sub-Province of the Central Province,
which embraces the varied scarp and vale topography flanking the higher
portions of the southern Pennines, where narrow escarpments of limestone and
sandstone and softer shale vales give a distinct north-south grain to the
landscape. Dispersed settlement increases from extremely low to medium
densities in the south east of the sub-Province to high densities at the north
west. With the exception of Sherwood Forest, the region is well stocked with
nucleated settlements, some old but others the result of 18th- and 19th-
century industrial developments. Anglo-Saxon `wood' names are common among
placenames, and the area was well wooded in 1086.
The Permian Limestone Ridge local region is an area of great diversity. A
long, narrow outcrop of limestone is cut by a succession of rivers and streams
flowing eastwards. There are wide contrasts in the amounts of both nucleated
and dispersed settlement. At the time of Domesday Book only the northern part
of the region contained recorded settlements, while the place-names of the
southern part indicate woodland in Anglo-Saxon times.

Medieval villages were organised agricultural communities, sited at the centre
of a parish or township, that shared resources such as arable land, meadow and
woodland. Village plans varied enormously, but when they survive as
earthworks their most distinguishing features include roads and minor tracks,
platforms on which stood houses and other buildings such as barns, enclosed
crofts and small enclosed paddocks. They frequently include the parish church
within their boundaries, and as part of the manorial system most villages
include one or more manorial centres which may also survive as visible remains
as well as below ground deposits. In the Central Province of England, villages
were the most distinctive aspect of medieval life, and their archaeological
remains are one of the most important sources of understanding about rural
life in the five or more centuries following the Norman Conquest.
Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often seasonally water filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The peak period during which
moated sites were built was between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the
greatest concentration lies in central and eastern parts of England. However,
moated sites were built were built throughout the medieval period, are widely
scattered throughout England and exhibit a high level of diversity in their
forms and sizes
The earthwork and buried remains of the abandoned areas of the medieval
settlement of Slade Hooton are well preserved and retain significant
archaeological deposits. The earthworks and aerial photographs provide a clear
picture of the village layout and how it fitted within the wider agricultural
landscape. The silts at the base of the moat and the buried land surface
beneath the external bank will retain important environmental and ecological
deposits which can inform us of the environmental history of the area. Taken
as a whole, the medieval settlement remains of Slade Hooton will add greatly
to our knowledge and understanding of the development and decline of medieval
settlement in the area.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Page, W, The Victoria History of the County of Yorkshire, (1912), 253
Rodgers, A, Slade Hooton, (1998), 1

Source: Historic England

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