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Caesar's Camp hillfort and the remains of a Napoleonic redoubt

A Scheduled Monument in Bracknell, Bracknell Forest

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.3839 / 51°23'1"N

Longitude: -0.7603 / 0°45'36"W

OS Eastings: 486368.561564

OS Northings: 165709.485588

OS Grid: SU863657

Mapcode National: GBR D87.0MN

Mapcode Global: VHDX9.RGYZ

Entry Name: Caesar's Camp hillfort and the remains of a Napoleonic redoubt

Scheduled Date: 11 September 1963

Last Amended: 24 October 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016334

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28182

County: Bracknell Forest

Civil Parish: Bracknell

Built-Up Area: Bracknell

Traditional County: Berkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Berkshire

Church of England Parish: Easthampstead

Church of England Diocese: Oxford

Details

The monument includes a large hillfort which follows the contours of the
northward projecting spur on which it stands. The site is known as Caesar's
Camp, an antiquarian name applied to the earthworks in the mistaken belief
that it was a Roman camp left by Julius Caesar after his campaign of 55-54 BC.

The earthworks are in fact the remains of a large hillfort which took
advantage of the natural hill slopes and included banks and ditches to enhance
the defensive capability of the site. The main circuit consists of a single
massive rampart bank enclosing over 10ha. It stands up to 4m high in places
and measures up to 15m wide. There is a further bank and ditch along the
eastern side of the monument as well as in several others at different points
around the perimeter. The defences at the southern end, where the fort faces
the plateau from which its promontory projects, have been altered by modern
earth levelling which has infilled a substantial ditch which formerly ran in
front of the rampart and now survives as a buried feature.

Entrances would have been located at this southern end of the monument where
the original causeway is believed to survive as a buried feature, and also on
the north eastern side where an entrance can still be seen. The entrance from
the north is probably not original but is likely to be a later cutting made to
facilitate access across the site.

The site has been partly surveyed using non-destructive geophysical survey,
and this has shown a number of pits, tracks and possible building structures
below the present ground level. Although not excavated, the site has produced
occasional finds including a coin of the early 1st century British leader
Cunobelin.

Also present within the area of the hillfort is a sub-square redoubt roughly
40m across which appears to form part of the defence line created for military
exercise purposes in 1792. There are also other earthworks associated with a
number of periods of military activity within the hillfort which has been used
as a camp and training area over the last 200 years.

All fences and information signs are excluded from the scheduling, although
the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Large univallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of varying
shape, ranging in size between 1ha and 10ha, located on hilltops and
surrounded by a single boundary comprising earthworks of massive proportions.
They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and used
between the fourth century BC and the first century AD, although evidence for
earlier use is present at most sites. The size of the earthworks reflects the
ability of certain social groups to mobilise the labour necessary for works on
such a monumental scale, and their function may have had as much to do with
display as defence. Large univallate hillforts are also seen as centres of
redistribution, both for subsistence products and items produced by craftsmen.
The ramparts are of massive proportions except in locations where steepness of
slope precludes easy access. They can vary between 6m and 20m wide and may
survive to a height of 6m. The ditches can measure between 6m and 13m wide and
between 3m and 5m deep. Access to the interior is generally provided by one or
two entrances which often take the form of long passages formed by inturned
ramparts and originally closed by a gate located towards the inner end of the
passageway. The entrance may be flanked by guardrooms and/or accompanied by
outworks. Internal features included timber or stone round houses; large
storage pits and hearths; scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies; and
square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six posts, often
represented by postholes, and interpreted as raised granaries. Large
univallate hillforts are rare with between 50 and 100 examples recorded
nationally. Most are located within southern England where they occur on the
chalklands of Wessex, Sussex and Kent. The western edge of the distribution is
marked by scattered examples in north Somerset and east Devon, while further
examples occur in central and western England and outliers further north.
Within this distribution considerable regional variation is apparent, both in
their size, rampart structure and the presence or absence of individual
components. In view of the rarity of large univallate hillforts and their
importance in understanding the organisation and regional structure of Iron
Age society, all examples with surviving archaeological remains are believed
to be of national importance.

Caesar's Camp is unusual in that it is a well preserved example of a carefully
planned and constructed contour hillfort which also served as the focus for
later reuse including both enhancements to the hillfort and separate
earthworks such as the Napoleonic redoubt.

As a result of recent geophysical survey the level of survival of the buried
remains is known to be good; these will provide archaeological and
environmental evidence for the monument's construction, occupation and later
reuse, and the landscape on which it was originally built.

The presence of the later redoubt within Caesar's Camp demonstrates the
continued importance of the hillfort as a landscape feature, and preserves
part of a unique series of practice redoubts on Easthamstead Plain.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
00376.00.000, S.M.R.O., CAESAR'S CAMP, (1991)
00378.08.000, S.M.R.O., Redoubt, (1991)

Source: Historic England

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