Ancient Monuments

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Iron Age defended settlement in Fox Covert

A Scheduled Monument in Chatton, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.5901 / 55°35'24"N

Longitude: -1.9548 / 1°57'17"W

OS Eastings: 402944.355777

OS Northings: 632941.323072

OS Grid: NU029329

Mapcode National: GBR G3SS.LY

Mapcode Global: WH9ZB.YR9F

Entry Name: Iron Age defended settlement in Fox Covert

Scheduled Date: 23 August 1935

Last Amended: 16 January 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016246

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29332

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Chatton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Chatton with Chillingham

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes the remains of a prehistoric defended settlement of Iron
Age date. It is located in a prominent position at the south east end of a
ridge and would originally have had extensive views to the north, east and
south. The settlement is circular in plan and measures approximately 100m in
diameter externally. It is enclosed by two earthen ramparts with an outer and
medial ditch, all of which are clearly visible around the whole circuit of the
settlement. The ramparts vary in width from 10m to 13.5m and in height from
0.4m to 1.3m; the medial ditch has an average depth of approximately 1m below
the top of the rampart and is 3m wide. The outer ditch is 0.1m deep by 5m wide
but lies about 0.8m below the top of the outer rampart. There are two slights
in the rampart: that on the west side has been interpreted in the past as the
original entrance and the eastern break attributed to damage caused during
tree felling and planting; neither break is now clearly defined on the ground.
A pheasant shelter in the medial ditch on the west side of the settlement is
excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

During the mid-prehistoric period (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of
different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied
in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts
built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites,
sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended
settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops,
others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of
earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate),
others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen
ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber
fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built
round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept
in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed
yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single
family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction
and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through
to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD).
Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element
of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are
important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during
this period. All well-preserved examples are believed to be of national

The Iron Age defended settlement in Fox Covert is well preserved and will
retain significant archaeological deposits. Its importance is enhanced by the
proximity of several contemporary defended enclosures and hillforts 2km to the
west clustered on Doddington Moor and Horton Moor. The defended settlement
forms part of a wider archaeological landscape and will contribute to any
study of the settlement pattern during this period.

Source: Historic England

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