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Churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Backwell, North Somerset

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.4117 / 51°24'41"N

Longitude: -2.7302 / 2°43'48"W

OS Eastings: 349312.460501

OS Northings: 168322.613501

OS Grid: ST493683

Mapcode National: GBR JJ.QCZ7

Mapcode Global: VH88R.MSJ6

Entry Name: Churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard

Scheduled Date: 20 March 1997

Last Amended: 7 August 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016202

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28827

County: North Somerset

Civil Parish: Backwell

Built-Up Area: Backwell

Traditional County: Somerset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset

Details

The monument includes a cross situated in the churchyard at Backwell
approximately 5m south east of the church porch.

The cross, which is Listed Grade II, has a four step octagonal calvary, a
socket stone and shaft with a decorated terminal surmounted by a lantern cross
head. The first step of the calvary is 0.55m high, and the second, third and
fourth steps are 0.4m, 0.33m and 0.3m high respectively. The first step is
4.4m in diameter with large ashlar stones on its upper surface, and each side
of its octagon is 1.65m long. The width of the octagonal sides of the second,
third and fourth steps are 1.2m, 0.9m and 0.6m respectively. Above the fourth
step of the calvary is the socket stone with a square base and convex broaches
at its angles forming an octagonal top. It is 0.95m wide and 0.65m high with a
central socket 0.35m square. The shaft is approximately 3m high, square at its
base, but then stopped and continuing in octagonal form as it tapers to an
ornamental terminal and cross head. The terminal has a Gothic decoration, and
the cross head has four recessed faces formed by moulded spires at its angles.
On the west side are the symbols of the Annunciation and on the east, the
Crucifixion. On the south side, the arms of the diocese of Bath and Wells are
shown, and the arms of the province of Canterbury are shown on the north side.
The lantern head is surmounted by a moulded spire.

The calvary is constructed from stone blocks and ashlar stones. The socket
stone is hewn from one piece of stone, and the shaft is jointed. The lantern
head is a replacement for the stone dial and ball which existed in the 19th
century. This restoration is thought to have happened when the cross was
refurbished in 1966. The cross is considered to date to the 15th century.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Although the cross head has been replaced, the standing cross in the
churchyard at Backwell survives well as a visually impressive monument of the
medieval period in what is likely to be its original location.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Pooley, C, Old Stone Crosses of Somerset, (1877), 70-71

Source: Historic England

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