Ancient Monuments

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Ganarew Cross

A Scheduled Monument in Ganarew, Herefordshire,

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Latitude: 51.8433 / 51°50'36"N

Longitude: -2.6796 / 2°40'46"W

OS Eastings: 353280.468

OS Northings: 216300.62

OS Grid: SO532163

Mapcode National: GBR FM.V3YX

Mapcode Global: VH86N.HXSS

Entry Name: Ganarew Cross

Scheduled Date: 11 July 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016118

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29862

County: Herefordshire,

Civil Parish: Ganarew

Traditional County: Herefordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Herefordshire

Church of England Parish: Ganarew

Church of England Diocese: Hereford


The monument includes a standing stone cross, located approximately 18m to the
east of Cross cottage on the north side of the Ross to Monmouth Road, at the
point where the road to St Swithin's Church branches off to the west. The
cross is of stepped form, and is principally medieval in date. The monument
includes the base of two steps and a socket stone, the shaft, the knop and the

The steps are square in plan and are constructed of sandstone blocks. The
lower step is almost totally buried under soil and vegetation but is known to
extend at least 0.15m on each side beyond the top step, which measures 0.97m
in diameter by 0.19m high. The socket stone measures 0.61m square at the base
and rises through chamfered corners to an octagon on the upper surface. It is
0.3m high. The shaft is set into the top of the socket stone. It is square at
the top and the base and octagonal in section in the middle. It is 0.16m in
diameter and 2.6m high, and terminates in a square knop.

The knop serves as a platform for the plain Latin cross head. The shaft, knop
and head are all modern additions. The full height of the cross is
approximately 3.9m.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Ganarew Cross is a good example of a medieval standing cross, with a square
stepped base and a square to octagonal socket stone. It is believed to stand
in or near its original position at the junction of the old Ross to Monmouth
Road and the lane to St Swithin's Church. The cross is located 150m from the
parish church of St Swithin, where there is a further standing cross in the
churchyard. While most of Ganarew Cross has survived from medieval times, its
subsequent restoration has demonstrated its continued function as a public
monument from medieval times to the present day.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Watkins, A, 'Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists Field Club.' in Herefordshire Wayside and Town Crosses, (1917), 253

Source: Historic England

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