Ancient Monuments

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Antonstown medieval dispersed settlement 450m south east of Crew Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Bewcastle, Cumbria

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Latitude: 55.0917 / 55°5'29"N

Longitude: -2.673 / 2°40'22"W

OS Eastings: 357141.859423

OS Northings: 577675.813836

OS Grid: NY571776

Mapcode National: GBR 99SK.3L

Mapcode Global: WH7Z7.X990

Entry Name: Antonstown medieval dispersed settlement 450m south east of Crew Farm

Scheduled Date: 6 September 1977

Last Amended: 3 July 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015868

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27773

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Bewcastle

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Bewcastle St Cuthbert

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of Antonstown medieval
dispersed settlement. It is located on the hillside approximately 450m south
east of Crew Farm and includes the turf covered remains of two houses and two
sub-rectangular stock enclosures; one of the enclosures lies to the north of
Fountain Sike while the remainder of the monument is situated south of the

The southern house lies with its long axis aligned east-west and measures
approximately 20m by 7m externally with walls 1.2m wide and up to 0.5m high.
It is subdivided into a central narrow room with larger rooms to east and
west, each room being on a slightly different level because of the natural
slope. The second house, with its long axis at a slight angle to the first,
measures c.12m by 5m externally with walls 1.2m wide and up to 0.5m high, and
is subdivided into two rooms of unequal sizes. A short distance north of the
second house, and immediately south of Fountain Sike, is a stock enclosure
measuring approximately 18m by 12m internally which is bounded by a turf and
stone wall 1.2m wide and up to 0.8m high. There are narrow entrances at the
south west and north west corners of the enclosure. On the northern side of
Fountain Sike are three sides of a larger enclosure measuring c.30m by 20m
which is bounded on three sides by a turf and stone wall. The enclosure's
north east wall has been partly disturbed by a later field dyke while Fountain
Sike appears to have formed the boundary on the enclosure's south east side. A
later field dyke also crosses that part of the monument to the south of
Fountain Sike. The settlement was not included in the 1839 Tithe Award and is
thus thought to have been abandoned by that date.

All fenceposts and later field dykes are excluded from the scheduling although
the ground beneath these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval and rural settlement in England is marked by a great diversity of
form, size and type and the protection of archaeological remains needs to take
these regional differences into account. To do this, England has been divided
into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive mixture of
nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can further be divided into sub-
Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have gradually
evolved during the past 1500 years or more.

This monument lies in the Cumbria-Solway sub-Province of the Northern and
Western Province, an area characterised by dispersed hamlets and farmsteads
but with some larger nucleated settlements in well defined agriculturally
favoured areas, established after the Norman conquest. Traces of seasonal
settlements, or shielings, dominate the high, wet and windy uplands, where
surrounding communities grazed their livestock during the summer months.
The Borders local region comprises the great slope of land between the High
Cheviots and the Solway, where hamlets and scattered farmsteads predominate,
and where bastles and tower houses recall the social conditions of the Anglo-
Scottish borders before the mid-17th century. The eastern part of the region,
containing the wastes of Bewcastle Fells and Spadeadam, can be seen as a
separate subdivision; it was occupied by shieling grounds during the Middle
Ages and the Tudor period, and preserves the remains of associated settlememt

Antonstown medieval dispersed settlement survives well and will retain
significant archaeological deposits. It is a good example of this class of
monument located in the Border Region and will add greatly to our
understanding of the wider border settlement and economy during the medieval

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 49, 51
AM7, Charlesworth, D, Antonstown Old Farmstead, (1973)

Source: Historic England

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