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Medieval wayside cross, 190m east of Belsay Tower

A Scheduled Monument in Belsay, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.1013 / 55°6'4"N

Longitude: -1.8656 / 1°51'56"W

OS Eastings: 408671.299873

OS Northings: 578552.035439

OS Grid: NZ086785

Mapcode National: GBR H9DG.W3

Mapcode Global: WHC31.91VL

Entry Name: Medieval wayside cross, 190m east of Belsay Tower

Scheduled Date: 7 April 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015518

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25164

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Belsay

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Bolam St Andrew

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a medieval wayside cross situated
immediately to the north of a field boundary on the Belsay Estate. The cross,
which is listed Grade II, has a large socket stone formed out of a sandstone
block 0.9m by 0.85m and stands 0.55m high. A shaft 2.75m high stands in the
socket stone; it is chamfered towards its base. The shaft and its base are
undecorated. The cross was originally situated within the medieval village of
Belsay, presumably along the main village street which was also the main
medieval road from Belsay to Capheaton. The cross is known to have been
removed to its present location by 1864.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Although the wayside cross near Belsay Tower is not in its original setting it
has not been moved far. It survives reasonably well and is missing only its
head.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
RCAME, , The Parkland around Belsay hall, (1985)

Source: Historic England

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