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Fifield long barrow

A Scheduled Monument in Upper Rissington, Gloucestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.8661 / 51°51'57"N

Longitude: -1.6863 / 1°41'10"W

OS Eastings: 421694.630051

OS Northings: 218658.944436

OS Grid: SP216186

Mapcode National: GBR 5S1.SKV

Mapcode Global: VHBZK.QCC9

Entry Name: Fifield long barrow

Scheduled Date: 14 May 1946

Last Amended: 19 November 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015159

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28133

County: Gloucestershire

Civil Parish: Upper Rissington

Built-Up Area: Upper Rissington

Traditional County: Oxfordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Gloucestershire

Church of England Parish: Fifield with Idbury

Church of England Diocese: Oxford

Details

The monument includes a Neolithic chambered long barrow situated on a slight
ridge which is now much landscaped and levelled to form the Little Rissington
Airfield. Originally the ridge ran north east-south west and the barrow is
aligned along it with its wider front at the north east end.
The barrow survives as a visible earthen mound 48m long and 28m across at its
widest point. It varies in height from 0.5m at its south west end to 1.8m near
the middle. Part excavation in 1934 confirmed that the barrow included a stone
built passage from its north east end which ran c.20m into the barrow where it
terminated in a small chamber. This had been excavated at an earlier date. The
resulting trench can still be seen as a slight depression 23m in length
running along the axis of the mound. A further chamber built into the side of
the mound was also identified in early excavations. Some stone can still be
seen protruding through the slumped back-fill of these trenches.
It is thought likely that the mound was constructed from stone and turf
collected over a wide area. The common tradition of digging quarry ditches
does not seem to have been practiced here.
During World War II, when the airfield was built, the barrow was left
largely undisturbed although a brick bomb shelter was built into the north
west side of the mound. The remains of this are still visible above ground,
and are included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Long barrows were constructed as earthen or drystone mounds with flanking
ditches and acted as funerary monuments during the Early and Middle Neolithic
periods (3400-2400 BC). They represent the burial places of Britain's early
farming communities and, as such, are amongst the oldest field monuments
surviving visibly in the present landscape. Where investigated, long barrows
appear to have been used for communal burial, often with only parts of the
human remains having been selected for interment. Certain sites provide
evidence for several phases of funerary monument preceding the barrow and,
consequently, it is probable that long barrows acted as important ritual sites
for local communities over a considerable period of time. Some 500 examples of
long barrows and long cairns, their counterparts in the uplands, are recorded
nationally. As one of the few types of Neolithic structure to survive as
earthworks, and due to their comparative rarity, their considerable age and
their longevity as a monument type, all long barrows are considered to be
nationally important.

Despite having been partly excavated on two occasions, the Fifield barrow
survives well and is known to contain a passage and at least two chambers. It
will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its
construction and the landscape in which it was built.
The barrow is unusual because it is believed that it was constructed without
flanking quarry ditches.
The brick built bomb shelter contributes to the visibility of the monument and
documents a separate phase in land use and management in the history of the
site.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PRN 1450 note 2, C.A.O., FIFIELD LONG BARROW, (1977)
PRN 1450 Note 2a, C.A.O., FIFIELD LONG BARROW, (1977)
PRN 1450 Note 2b, C.A.O., FIFIELD LONG BARROW, (1977)
PRN 1450 Note 2c, C.A.O., FIFIELD LONG BARROW, (1977)
PRN 1450, C.A.O., FIFIELD LONG BARROW, (1977)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Series
Source Date: 1980
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:
Sheet SP 21 NW

Source: Historic England

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