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Herd Hill North (tower 3b), 175m north east of the sheep wash, part of the Roman frontier defences along the Cumbrian coast

A Scheduled Monument in Bowness, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.9307 / 54°55'50"N

Longitude: -3.2868 / 3°17'12"W

OS Eastings: 317641.205

OS Northings: 560318.99

OS Grid: NY176603

Mapcode National: GBR 5CHF.68

Mapcode Global: WH6YL.HB2C

Entry Name: Herd Hill North (tower 3b), 175m north east of the sheep wash, part of the Roman frontier defences along the Cumbrian coast

Scheduled Date: 9 November 1961

Last Amended: 21 February 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014915

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27728

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Bowness

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Bowness-on-Solway St Michael

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the buried remains of Herd Hill North tower. Within the
sequence of Roman towers along the Cumbrian coast this one has been identified
as 3b. The tower was originally of sandstone construction and is located on a
slight rise on the line of a gravel ridge which is more pronounced on the
seaward side. Limited antiquarian investigation of the monument in 1880 found
the tower to measure c.5.8m square externally and to be constructed on
foundations of cobbles set in cement. Internally the tower measured c.4m
square and contained a flagged floor on which Roman pottery, human bones and a
quantity of mussel shells were found. Amongst the Roman pottery was an amphora
handle bearing the stamp ROMANI. RR.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 10 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The
international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through
designation as a World Heritage Site.
The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was
recognised by the Romans in the second half of the first century AD when a
military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts.
There is evidence that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a
frontier by the start of the second century AD, but the line was consolidated
in the early second century AD by the construction of a substantial frontier
work, Hadrian's Wall, in c.120 AD. Subsequent attempts to establish the
boundary further north, between Clyde and Forth, failed by c.160 AD. Hadrian's
Wall then remained the frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.400 AD
when Roman armies withdrew from Britain.
For most of its course, the 70 miles of Hadrian's Wall running from coast to
coast comprised a continuous stone wall (which in places was first temporarily
built of turf) with permanent structures sited at intervals of one Roman mile
(milecastles) and at third of a mile intervals (turrets) between the
milecastles. At a later date, the Wall was strengthened by 16 full-size
garrison forts built either on, or close to, the Wall. To the north of the
Wall, for most of its length, lay a substantial defensive ditch and to the
south a complex of banks and ditches provided east-west communication and
demarcated the frontier zone from the province.
To the west of Bowness-on-Solway, where the Wall reached the sea, however, the
frontier had a different character and served a slightly different purpose. At
the western end of the Wall a system of milefortlets and towers, spaced
similarly to the milecastles and turrets along the Wall, extended the frontier
system for at least 27 miles down the Cumbrian coast and helped control
movement across the estuary of the Solway Firth. In places these milefortlets
and towers were supplemented by lengths of palisade fences.
Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was
often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late
fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its
armies from the Wall and Britain.
The frontier works along the Cumbrian coast survive as earthworks or buried
archaeological remains, the latter sometimes visible on aerial photographs.
They survive in this form largely as a result of the more ephemeral materials
of which they were built (timber and turf instead of the stone of Hadrian's
Wall land frontier) rather than because of poor survival of archaeological
remains. Components of the coastal frontier which have surviving
archaeological remains, whether visible or not, will generally be considered
of national importance.

Despite the lack of surface remains, limited antiquarian investigation has
shown that buried remains of Herd Hill North tower 3b survive reasonably well.
The monument will contribute to any further study of the Roman frontier
defences along the Cumbrian coast.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Thompson, F H , Archaeology and Coastal Change, (1980), 90
Bellhouse, R L, 'Britannia' in Notes on Solway Frontier: Interim Report 1976-81, , Vol. 15, (1984), 232-4
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb And West Antiq And Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Roman Signal Stations on the Cumberland Coast, , Vol. XXIX, (1929), 146
Ferguson, C, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Old Ser.' in , , Vol. 5, (1881), 128
Jones, G D B, 'Britannia' in The Solway Frontier: Interim Report, , Vol. 13, (1982), 287
To Robinson,K.D. (MPPA), Carr, G.H. (Owner), (1996)
To Robinson,K.D. (MPPA), Jones,G.D.B., (1996)

Source: Historic England

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