Ancient Monuments

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Pasture House turret 3a

A Scheduled Monument in Bowness, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.9315 / 54°55'53"N

Longitude: -3.2792 / 3°16'45"W

OS Eastings: 318130.530297

OS Northings: 560390.996964

OS Grid: NY181603

Mapcode National: GBR 5CJF.V0

Mapcode Global: WH6YL.L9PT

Entry Name: Pasture House turret 3a

Scheduled Date: 9 November 1961

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007185

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 237

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Bowness

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Bowness-on-Solway St Michael

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Summary

Pasture House Turret 3A, 386m west of Pasture House.

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 17 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a Roman tower, situated close to the Cumbrian coast. The remains of the tower are preserved as a slight earthwork and form part of the network of Roman Cumbrian coastal defences. The monument lies within the Hadrian’s Wall World Heritage Site.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through designation as a World Heritage Site. The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was recognised by the Romans in the second half of the first century AD when a military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts. There is evidence that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of the second century AD, but the line was consolidated in the early second century AD by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall, in c.120 AD. Subsequent attempts to establish the boundary further north, between Clyde and Forth, failed by c.160 AD. Hadrian's Wall then remained the frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.400 AD when Roman armies withdrew from Britain. For most of its course, the 70 miles of Hadrian's Wall running from coast to coast comprised a continuous stone wall (which in places was first temporarily built of turf) with permanent structures sited at intervals of one Roman mile (milecastles) and at third of a mile intervals (turrets) between the milecastles. At a later date, the Wall was strengthened by 16 full-size garrison forts built either on, or close to, the Wall. To the north of the Wall, for most of its length, lay a substantial defensive ditch and to the south a complex of banks and ditches provided east-west communication and demarcated the frontier zone from the province. To the west of Bowness-on-Solway, where the Wall reached the sea, however, the frontier had a different character and served a slightly different purpose. At the western end of the Wall a system of milefortlets and towers, spaced similarly to the milecastles and turrets along the Wall, extended the frontier system for at least 27 miles down the Cumbrian coast and helped control movement across the estuary of the Solway Firth. In places these milefortlets and towers were supplemented by lengths of palisade fences. Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its armies from the Wall and Britain. The frontier works along the Cumbrian coast survive as earthworks or buried archaeological remains, the latter sometimes visible on aerial photographs. They survive in this form largely as a result of the more ephemeral materials of which they were built (timber and turf instead of the stone of Hadrian's Wall land frontier) rather than because of poor survival of archaeological remains. Components of the coastal frontier which have surviving archaeological remains, whether visible or not, will generally be considered of national importance.

Pasture House Turret 3A, 386m west of Pasture House is preserved as an earthwork and will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment. The monument forms part of the wider Roman Cumbrian coastal defence system and taken together the remains are representative of their period and provide insight into Roman military strategy.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PastScape Monument No:- 9688

Source: Historic England

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