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Wayside cross in Egloshayle churchyard, 0.46m east of the church porch

A Scheduled Monument in Wadebridge, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.5127 / 50°30'45"N

Longitude: -4.8211 / 4°49'16"W

OS Eastings: 200080.984979

OS Northings: 71901.464892

OS Grid: SX000719

Mapcode National: GBR ZV.MWDY

Mapcode Global: FRA 07SP.X63

Entry Name: Wayside cross in Egloshayle churchyard, 0.46m east of the church porch

Scheduled Date: 13 February 1958

Last Amended: 4 January 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014910

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28456

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Wadebridge

Built-Up Area: Wadebridge

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Breoke

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross situated in Egloshayle
churchyard in the River Camel valley in north Cornwall.
The wayside cross survives as an upright granite shaft with a round, `wheel'
head, standing to a height of 0.74m. The head measures 0.28m high by 0.3m wide
and is 0.17m thick. The principal faces are orientated north-south. Both
principal faces bear a relief equal limbed cross with splayed ends to the
limbs, and a narrow bead around the outer edge of the head. The upper limb on
the south face ends in a point at the intersection of the limbs slightly in
relief of the rest of the cross motif. In the top of the head is a 0.03m
diameter shallow hole. The rectangular-section shaft measures 0.45m high by
0.23m wide at the base tapering slightly to 0.21m at the top, and is 0.17m
thick. On the west side of the shaft is a 0.06m diameter hole, 0.09m deep, and
below that is a 0.13m long fracture. This hole is a result of the former reuse
of the cross as a gatepost.
The wayside cross is located in the churchyard at Egloshayle, immediately to
the east of the church porch. It was found in Dunmere Woods, 5.75km south east
of the church, and was removed to the churchyard for preservation. The cross
was located on the north side of the church but was later re-erected in its
present position in the early 20th century.
The slate and granite memorial plaques and their gravel surround to the north
and east of the cross, the low slate wall to the west and south, the concrete
gutter to the west and the gravel surface of the footpath passing to the south
where they lie within the protective margin of the cross, are excluded from
the scheduling but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

This wayside cross in Egloshayle churchyard has survived well, and is a good
example of a wheel-headed cross. It was found in Dunmere Woods and may have
been a waymarker on a route to Bodmin, an important religious and
administrative centre during the medieval period. Its removal to the
churchyard and re-erection there in the early 20th century illustrates the
changing attitudes to religion which have prevailed since the Reformation and
their impact on the local landscape.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Other
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 07/17; Pathfinder Series 1338
Source Date: 1988
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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