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Deserted medieval village and chapel at Tughall

A Scheduled Monument in Beadnell, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.5307 / 55°31'50"N

Longitude: -1.6653 / 1°39'54"W

OS Eastings: 421226.889782

OS Northings: 626381.277829

OS Grid: NU212263

Mapcode National: GBR J4TH.86

Mapcode Global: WHC10.D77X

Entry Name: Deserted medieval village and chapel at Tughall

Scheduled Date: 26 November 1932

Last Amended: 16 July 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014732

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24638

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Beadnell

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Beadnell St Ebba

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes part of the deserted medieval village and chapel of
Tughall. It is situated on level ground in the arable coastal strip of north
Northumberland. The village earthworks comprise a series of rectangular
crofts, or house platforms, on the south side of a sunken way or old stream
course. To the south of these is a block of medieval ridge and furrow
ploughing which measures 7m from furrow to furrow and stands up to 0.3m high,
with a headland on the southern edge. Along the southern edge of the field
system is a sunken track 7m wide and 0.3m deep. The village of Tughall was a
member of the barony of Alnwick and was held in demesne in 1242. It is
mentioned in documents of 1292, when Edward I stayed there en route to
Scotland.
The 12th century chapel and its graveyard are located at the east end of the
village and are raised above the level of the surrounding land. The chapel is
visible as a rectangular mound and measures 22m north east to south west by
10m north west to south east, stands 0.5m high and contains stone foundations.
Drawings made c.1786 by S H Grimm show the architecture of the chapel was
early Norman and the building consisted of a nave, square chancel and
semicircular apse with vault. At the east end there is a standing section of
an apse; this measures 4m by 3m and stands up to 2.1m high internally with
traces of the internal floor surface and external foundations clearly visible.
An entrance survives above ground in the south wall of the nave, marked by
kerb stones and measuring 1m wide. The chapel is surrounded by a bank 2m wide
which stands up to 1m high internally and 2.5m externally. This demarcates a
chapel graveyard measuring 57m east-west by 40m north-south. On the south side
there is no bank but there is a ditch up to 3m wide and 0.6m deep. One grave
cover and some fragments are visible in the graveyard south of the chapel. The
complete grave cover measures 2m long and 0.2m thick and lies to one side of a
slight depression which probably represents a grave. A stone cross is situated
10m to the south of the chapel and consists of a socket stone 0.7m square and
0.1m high set in the ground, and containing part of a cross shaft 0.2m high.
Tughall, along with other chapels in the parish of Bamburgh, was in the
possession of Nostell Priory, although in 1147 two thirds of the tithes were
given to Alnwick Abbey. It constituted a chapel of ease to Bamburgh and was
last used in 1630. The chapel is said to have been built on the spot where the
body of St Cuthbert rested on 13th December 1069, during its removal from
Durham to Lindisfarne. The cemetery was consecrated c.1217. Against the
western edge of the graveyard is a pond, now dry, which first appears on a map
of 1834. The pond measures 20m north west to south east by 18m north east to
south west. Two telegraph poles and the stone wall around the plantation at
the north of the site are excluded but the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A medieval chapel is a building, usually rectangular, containing a range of
furnishings and fittings appropriate for Christian worship in the pre-
Reformation period. Chapels were designed for congregational worship and were
generally divided into two main parts: the nave, which provided accommodation
for the laity, and the chancel, which was the main domain of the priest and
contained the principal altar. Around 4000 parochial chapels were built
between the 12th and 17th centuries as subsidiary places of worship built for
the convenience of parishioners who lived at a distance from the main parish
church. Other chapels were built as private places of worship by manorial
lords and lie near or within manor houses, castles or other high-status
residences. Chantry chapels were built and maintained by endowment and were
established for the singing of masses for the soul of the founder. Some
chapels possessed burial grounds. Unlike parish churches, the majority of
which remain in ecclesiastical use, chapels were often abandoned as their
communities and supporting finances declined or disappeared. Many chantry
chapels disappeared after the dissolution of their supporting communities in
the 1540s.
Chapels, like parish churches, have always been major features of the
landscape. A significant number of surviving examples are identified as being
nationally important. The sites of abandoned chapels, where positively
identified, are particularly worthy of statutory protection as they were often
left largely undisturbed and thus retain important information about the
nature and date of their use up to their abandonment.

Medieval rural settlement in England is marked by considerable diversity in
both form and size. Preserving the archaeology of such diversity is a matter
of national importance. The broad pattern of diversity in England can be
divided into three main provinces, which can in turn be sub-divided into sub-
provinces and local regions. The deserted settlement at Tughall lies in the
Wear and Tweed sub-province of the central settlement province of England.
The Wear and Tweed region includes the coastal plain between the Pennines and
Cheviots and the North Sea. The settlement pattern of medieval and later
periods is here marked by small nucleated settlements, many of which have
remained in occupation to the present day. The chapel and village remains at
Tughall survive reasonably well and will contribute to further understanding
of settlement patterns in this region.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Bateson, E, 'Bamburgh' in A History of Northumberland, , Vol. 1, (1893), 245
Bateson, E, 'Bamburgh' in A History of Northumberland, , Vol. 1, (1893), 342-348
Bateson, E, 'Bamburgh' in A History of Northumberland, , Vol. 1, (1893), 350
Bateson, E, 'Bamburgh' in A History of Northumberland, , Vol. 1, (1893), 346-347
Other
entry (2)(3), NU 22 NW 1,
NRO, Norton, R, The Plann of Tugghall in Northumberland, (1620)
NU 22 NW 1,
Title: A plan of lands situate at Tughal ... in the Parish of Bamburgh
Source Date: 1834
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:
NRO

Source: Historic England

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