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Low Chibburn medieval preceptory, 16th century house and World War II pillbox

A Scheduled Monument in Widdrington Village, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.2623 / 55°15'44"N

Longitude: -1.583 / 1°34'58"W

OS Eastings: 426595.867721

OS Northings: 596535.031315

OS Grid: NZ265965

Mapcode National: GBR K7DL.2F

Mapcode Global: WHC26.NZCR

Entry Name: Low Chibburn medieval preceptory, 16th century house and World War II pillbox

Scheduled Date: 28 November 1932

Last Amended: 1 July 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014679

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24620

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Widdrington Village

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Widdrington Holy Trinity

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a preceptory of the Knights Hospitallers
which was reused in the 16th century as a house. Part of the chapel was
converted into a pillbox during World War II.
The ruins are situated in a low lying area of pasture land reinstated in
1973-4 after large scale opencast coal mining. Prior to these operations the
buildings stood beside a small stream known as the Dunbar Burn. This stream
once fed the moat which encircled the site during its life as a preceptory.
The preceptory was first recorded in 1313 and the later house was almost
certainly a dower house built by the Widdrington family. An account of 1338
states that the mansion house associated with the preceptory was in a
dilapidated condition and that the lands, including 190 acres and pastures and
meadows were `destroyed and greatly devastated' by the Scottish wars. At that
time there were three brethren of the order at Chibburn, one of them a
chaplain, and a pensioner, a chamberlain and a steward, a cleric for
collecting voluntary contributions, a stableman and a page. The preceptory was
abolished in 1540 and all its lands were taken into crown ownership. Although
it was briefly revived by Queen Mary I, Elizabeth I confiscated the lands
again. Sir John Widdrington came into possession of the manor in 1553 and at
this stage the west range was converted into a house. The buildings were burnt
during a French raid in 1692.
The ruins today consist of two main buildings, the chapel and the house, which
formed two sides of a courtyard. The remaining two sides of the courtyard
survive as foundations and tumbled walls. The south side of the courtyard was
formed by the chapel; it is aligned east-west and measures 16m x 6m
externally. It consists of a south wall, the east wall, the eastern section of
the north walls and the lower remains of the central part of the north wall.
It is built of sandstone ashlar and contains a piscina and an aumbry in the
south east corner. Built into the top of the south wall, directly above the
easternmost window, is the head tracery of a 14th century window which is now
invisible from ground level. Externally, there is a chamfered plinth at the
foot of the south and east walls and a moulded string course at mid height.
Towards the west end of the south wall is a blocked doorway with a two-centred
arch. The hoodmould above it, formed by the string course, also forms the hood
mould of three large square headed windows, all blocked. A block of stone
immediately above the doorway is carved with two shields in relief. Lower in
the wall there are two small single light ogee headed windows, one west of the
doorway and one between the central and western of the large windows. In
addition to these original openings there are several later insertions. Close
to the west end of the wall and above the string course are the remains of a
narrow window with hollow chamfered jambs. The lintel now lies at the foot of
the wall. Internally the rear arch of the window has been reduced in size. At
the same level, but on the east side of the doorway are the remains of a three
light mullioned window and below it a small square headed light, now blocked,
inserted into the blocking of the westernmost of the original larger windows.
A two light mullioned window has been inserted into the blocking of the
easternmost of these larger windows, utilising the sill and parts of the
moulded jambs of its predecessor.
Remains of mortar on the wall face indicate the outline of the pitched roof of
an attached building to the east of the doorway. The north east angle of the
chapel has been rebuilt, possibly in the late 16th or early 17th century. The
rebuilding, which included much of the northern wall, is in thinly coursed
rubble with larger roughly squared angle quoins.
The lower part of the south wall of the former north range survives and to the
west of a former gateway which was the main entrance into the courtyard, there
is a part of the west wall of the range. A piece of wall further south
attached to the east side of the west range is part of an 18th or 19th century
outbuilding. The lower part of the west wall complete with the jambs of two
openings survives from the east range.
The west range consisting of the 16th century house survives relatively
intact. This range is built of coursed roughly squared stone with cut
dressings and elongated squared quoins in the typical 16th and 17th century
style. The principal elevation faces west and divides into four irregular
bays, the northern being divided off by a cross wall and stack. Immediately
north of this stack is a cross passage. Its doorway has chamfered jambs and
an unchamfered arched head of flattened triangular form. West of this door is
a plain square headed window, formerly of two lights, but with its chamfers
cut back and its sill lowered in the later 19th century. Above are the remains
of a window opening, with two heavy corbels projecting from the wall beneath
its sill. To either side of a blocked doorway are windows originally
mullioned with three lights. The openings have hollow chamfered heads and
jambs. All three ground floor openings have relieving arches set four or five
courses above their lintels. The east wall of the west range has a shallow
projection housing a garderobe at first floor level. The garderobe was lit by
a small chamfered loop, the sill and one jamb of which remain. North of the
doorway into the garderobe is a doorway opening into the chapel from the
range. Immediately above is a first floor doorway. To the north of this is a
plain doorway with a timber lintel opening into the courtyard. Above is
another window with three corbels beneath its sill. Further north again is the
east doorway of the cross passage with a single light window above. The south
gable end of the west range has a central projecting stack. East of the
projection is a single light window at ground level, and at first floor level
an area of rubble and brick patching marks the position of another window. The
north end of this range has a chamfered plinth set back four courses above the
present ground level. At first floor level the stack projection has been
extended to the east in irregular rubble masonry. Inside the house nine
transverse beams survive, of which two have fallen. All the principal openings
have heavy rear lintels of oak and the remains of plaster still obscure much
of the stonework. Remains of the stairs can be seen alongside the entry from
the cross passage. The lower steps were of stone, of which three remain. The
room north of the cross passage has a large and original fireplace in the
centre of the north wall with a massive lintel, now broken, carrying a narrow
chamfer and a relieving arch above. The first floor fireplace above at the
east end of the wall is a later insertion and has fallen. Another large
fireplace is situated in the northern of the two rooms south of the entry
passage. Above is a slightly smaller first floor fireplace set forward with
its hearth supported by the ground floor ceiling beam. Some fragments of the
original floor boards survive trapped between the beam and the stonework.
Below the beam are remnants of a plaster cornice still clinging to the wall.
There are similar fireplaces in the south end wall.
The Ordnance Survey maps pre dating the opencast mining depict a moat
encircling the site. This was destroyed during the mining operations between
the 1950s and the 1970s.
In the north wall of the chapel, immediately east of the junction with the
surviving west wall of the east range, is a horizontal embrasure surviving
from a World War II pillbox. It has a timber lintel surrounded by brick and is
beneath a decayed timber lintel of an older opening which has some older brick
in its west jamb.
The site is surrounded by a wooden fence. The fence posts are excluded from
the scheduling but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A preceptory is a monastery of the military orders of Knights Templars and
Knights Hospitallers (also known as the Knights of St John of Jerusalem). At
least one preceptory of the Knights of St Lazarus is also known to have
existed in England. Preceptories were founded to raise revenues to fund the
12th and 13th century crusades to Jerusalem. In the 15th century the
Hospitallers directed their revenue toward defending Rhodes from the Turks. In
addition, the preceptories of the Templars functioned as recruiting and
training barracks for the knights whilst those of the Hospitallers provided
hospices which offered hospitality to pilgrims and travellers and distributed
alms to the poor. Lazarine preceptories had leper hospitals attached. Like
other monastic sites, the buildings of preceptories included provision for
worship and communal living. Their most unusual feature was the round nave of
their major churches which was copied from that of the Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem. Indeed their use of such circular churches was unique in medieval
England. Other buildings might include hospital buildings, workshops or
agricultural buildings. These were normally arranged around a central open
space, and were often enclosed within a moat or bank and ditch. From available
documentary sources it can be estimated that the Templars held 57 preceptories
in England. At least 14 of these were later taken over by the Hospitallers,
who held 76 sites. As a relatively rare monument class, all sites exhibiting
good survival of archaeological remains will be identified as nationally
important.

This monument represents a largely intact preceptory, house and pillbox. The
survival of the preceptory courtyard is particularly rare. The 16th century
house is in excellent condition. The site is well documented from the 14th
century onwards and drawings of the site from the last century provide
valuable information on its former appearance. The pillbox is one of a line
established to monitor and defend the coastline during World War II.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
RCHME, , Low Chibburn Preceptory, (1991)
Ryder, P, Low Chibburn Archaeological Record and Structural Interpretation, (1991)
Other
Radar North, Northumberland, (1958)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map NZ 2696
Source Date: 1959
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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