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Elsdonburn Roman period native settlements and medieval shieling

A Scheduled Monument in Kirknewton, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.5472 / 55°32'49"N

Longitude: -2.2086 / 2°12'30"W

OS Eastings: 386936.132789

OS Northings: 628187.861611

OS Grid: NT869281

Mapcode National: GBR F409.N9

Mapcode Global: WH9ZF.1TKS

Entry Name: Elsdonburn Roman period native settlements and medieval shieling

Scheduled Date: 18 June 1969

Last Amended: 20 May 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014505

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24596

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kirknewton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Kirknewton St Gregory

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes two native settlements typical of sites dating to the
Roman period. The settlements are situated on a south east facing slope close
to a stream. An adjacent medieval shieling is also included.
The northernmost settlement has three enclosures, one large and two smaller,
scooped into the hillside. The enclosure banks are made of turf covered stone
and measure 4.2m wide and are a maximum of 1.1m high. The main enclosure
measures approximately 27m by 26m internally. The entrance to this main
enclosure is located to the south east and is 2m wide. A circular scooped
house platform is located within it on the north side. It measures 10m by 14m.
The two smaller enclosures are located to the north east. The northern one
measures 22m in diameter and contains a further scooped house platform of
10.3m in diameter at the northern end of the enclosure. The bank survives to a
maximum height of 1m and 1.7m wide. The third enclosure measures 16.5m in
diameter and has an entrance facing into the main enclosure. The entrance is
2m wide. The bank measures a maximum of 1.7m wide and 1m high.
Downhill to the south east is a second settlement located 16.5m away. This
site includes one circular enclosure which survives as a ring of grass covered
stone, and which contains another circular stone enclosure within it. The
space between the two concentric enclosures is 2.5m wide.
The outer circular bank contains an area measuring 19m in diameter and
measures 0.79m high. The bank is 3.8m wide. The entrance is located to the
south, facing the stream. The inner enclosure is built largely of stone and
may have been rebuilt in more recent times. However, the foundations are
original and the stonework has come from the site. It measures a maximum of
12.5m in diameter, has a bank 1.5m wide and 1m high.
To the south east and attached to the settlement there are the remains of a
later addition to the site, which is interpreted as a typical medieval
The sheiling remains survive as slight rectangular banks measuring 12m wide
and 14m long.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Shielings are small seasonally occupied huts which were built to provide
shelter for herdsmen who tended animals grazing pasture on upland or
marshland. These huts reflect a system called transhumance, whereby stock was
moved in spring from lowland pasture around the permanently occupied farms to
communal upland grazing during the warm summer months. Shielings vary in size,
but are commonly small and may occur singly or in groups. They have a simple
sub-rectangular or ovoid plan normally defined by drystone walling. Shielings
are reasonably common in the uplands but frequently represent the only
evidence for medieval settlement and farming practice here. Those examples
which survive well and which help to illustrate medieval land use in an area
are considered to be nationally important.
The two settlement sites at Elsdonburn form well preserved examples of Roman
period native settlements. The stone walls and earthworks of the enclosures
can be identified, as can internal house platforms. The shieling also survives
well and information on its relationship to the earlier settlements will be
preserved. The whole complex is situated within an area of clustered
archaeological sites of high quality and forms part of a more extensive zone
of archaeological interest. It will therefore make a valuable contribution to
the study of the wider settement pattern and land use during the Roman and
medieval period.

Source: Historic England

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