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Settlement at Scaldhill Shank

A Scheduled Monument in Kirknewton, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.5437 / 55°32'37"N

Longitude: -2.2129 / 2°12'46"W

OS Eastings: 386661.316828

OS Northings: 627795.398377

OS Grid: NT866277

Mapcode National: GBR D4ZB.PK

Mapcode Global: WH9ZD.ZXDJ

Entry Name: Settlement at Scaldhill Shank

Scheduled Date: 14 March 1972

Last Amended: 16 August 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008744

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24577

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kirknewton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Kirknewton St Gregory

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a Roman period native farmstead contained within an
earth and stone enclosure and located on level ground surrounded by hills. The
location has fine views to the north west, but is overlooked by higher ground
to the north and south west.
The enclosure is circular in shape and consists of an earth and stone bank
0.4m wide and 0.6m high. An additional bank is located 3m outside and parallel
to the main enclosure on the south east side. This additional bank is 3.1m
wide.
Within the enclosure a possible hut circle survives on the south side,
measuring 5.9m in diameter. Further banks are visible in the centre of the
enclosure.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The site at Scaldhill Shank is in good condition. It is a good example of a
Roman period native settlement and its proximity to a number of other broadly
contemporary settlements demonstrates well the organisation and development of
land use during this period.

Source: Historic England

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