Ancient Monuments

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Earthwork enclosure 950m SSE of Manor Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Avebury, Wiltshire

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Latitude: 51.4232 / 51°25'23"N

Longitude: -1.8353 / 1°50'7"W

OS Eastings: 411545.057203

OS Northings: 169368.219915

OS Grid: SU115693

Mapcode National: GBR 3VL.QSW

Mapcode Global: VHB45.4HLB

Entry Name: Earthwork enclosure 950m SSE of Manor Farm

Scheduled Date: 10 March 1925

Last Amended: 1 February 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014031

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21897

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Avebury

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire


The monument includes a roughly square earthwork enclosure situated 950m SSE
of Manor Farm. The enclosure is situated near the bottom of a small east-west
aligned dry valley on the edge of the chalk escarpment and overlooks the West
Kennet Avenue to the west.
Although the earthworks of the enclosure have been levelled by cultivation,
earlier records and aerial photographs show that it originally had an earthen
bank 4m wide and at least 0.7m high, enclosing an area roughly 75m square.
Beyond the bank lies a 4m wide ditch which has become infilled over the years
but is known to survive as a buried feature. A counter-scarp bank, now
levelled, measures 2.5m in width and stood at least 0.6m high. A series of
small internal earthworks and the original entrance are also known to have
been located in the south west corner of the main enclosure.
The site was partly excavated by Sir Richard Colt-Hoare in the early 1800s.
This revealed evidence for the construction of the earthworks.
Excluded from the scheduling is the post and wire fence which runs roughly
east-west across the enclosure although the land beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Earthen enclosures provide evidence of land use and agricultural practices in
the prehistoric and Romano-British period, although later examples are also
known. They were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop
growing and were sometimes subdivided to provide temporary accommodation for
stock, farmers or herdsmen. The size and form of enclosures may vary
considerably depending on their particular function.
Their variation in form, longevity and their relationship to other monument
classes, including extensive field systems, provide information on the
diversity and social organisation and farming practices through the period of
their use.
Twelve examples are recorded in the Avebury area, which acted as a focus for
ceremonial and ritual activity during at least the Neolithic and Early Bronze
Age periods. Later the area was settled mostly by agricultural communities,
with the area intensively farmed through to the medieval period and beyond.
The enclosures in the Avebury area are central to understanding the character
of this development. All surviving examples are considered worthy of

The enclosure 950m SSE of Manor Farm is known from part excavation and aerial
photographs to survive buried below the present ground level and despite
having been levelled by cultivation will contain archaeological and
environmental evidence relating to its construction and the landscape in which
it was built.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Colt-Hoare, R, 'Ancient Wiltshire' in Ancient Wiltshire, , Vol. 2, (1821), 94
Grinsell, L V, 'A HISTORY OF WILTSHIRE' in Earthwork Enclosures, , Vol. 1,1, (1957), 262
SU 16 NW 066, R.C.H.M.(E), A rectangular enclosure, (1974)
Title: SU 16 NW
Source Date: 1961
6" Series
Updated AVWHS Survey entry SU16NW 677, C.A.O., Roughly square enclosure, (1989)

Source: Historic England

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