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Bomber Camp Romano-British farmstead and associated enclosure

A Scheduled Monument in Bracewell and Brogden, Lancashire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.9246 / 53°55'28"N

Longitude: -2.2406 / 2°14'26"W

OS Eastings: 384298.633556

OS Northings: 447635.532079

OS Grid: SD842476

Mapcode National: GBR DRS1.QW

Mapcode Global: WHB7B.KM85

Entry Name: Bomber Camp Romano-British farmstead and associated enclosure

Scheduled Date: 5 November 1980

Last Amended: 2 January 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1013817

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27680

County: Lancashire

Civil Parish: Bracewell and Brogden

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lancashire

Details

The monument includes Bomber Camp Romano-British farmstead and associated
enclosure. The farmstead is located on a gently sloping south east facing
hillslope and the enclosure lies immediately to the south east in the shallow
valley. The farmstead includes an enclosure approximately 70m square which is
surrounded on all sides by a ditch, now dry, measuring up to 2m wide by 0.5m
deep. The ditch is flanked by an outer bank 5m-7m wide and up to 0.3m high on
all sides except the north west, and an inner bank up to 4m wide and 0.4 high
on the north west and south west sides. Access into the farmstead's interior
is by an entrance situated at the mid-point of the south east side. The
associated enclosure lying immediately to the south east of the farmstead is
bounded by drainage ditches which run from close to the south and east corners
of the farmstead and curve round to enclose a sub-oval area with maximum
measurements of approximately 140m south west - north east by 110m north west
- south east. Within this enclosure there are two rectangular raised platforms
both measuring c.8m by 5m which are interpreted as hut platforms.
Limited excavation of the farmstead undertaken in 1939 showed that the
interior was roughly paved with boulders and dated an occupation area found at
the centre of the farmstead to the fourth century AD. Finds included pottery,
an iron sword blade, the top stone of a quern, a stone pounder and a spindle
whorl.
All modern field boundaries are excluded from the scheduling but the ground
beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Enclosures were originally bounded by stone walls, ditches, timber palisades,
or banks of stone and earth. They were constructed as stock pens or as
protected areas for crop growing and may have been subdivided to accommodate
stock and hut circle dwellings for farmers and herdsmen. The size and form of
these enclosures may therefore vary depending upon the their particular
function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship to other
monument classes provides important information on the social organisation and
farming practices of any associated settlements. They are particularly
representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving
examples are considered worthy of protection.
Bomber Camp Romano-British farmstead and associated enclosure survives
reasonably well and remains unencumbered by modern development. It is a rare
example in Lancashire of a Romano-British farmstead which has an associated
enclosure. Limited excavation within the farmstead during the late 1930's has
demonstrated evidence of fourth century AD occupation and further evidence of
the nature and function of this occupation will exist. Additionally the
monument will contribute to any study of Romano-British settlement patterns in
Lancashire and the north of England.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Musson, R C, Kitson Clark, M, 'Proceedings Leeds Philosophical Society' in Proceedings Leeds Philosophical Society, , Vol. 5 Pt.4, (1941), 239-51
Other
FMW Report, Capstick, B, Rectangular earthwork called Bomber Camp, (1988)

Source: Historic England

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