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Pair of bell barrows and a pair of bowl barrows forming part of a barrow cemetery at Baltic Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Bishops Cannings, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.3983 / 51°23'53"N

Longitude: -1.9366 / 1°56'11"W

OS Eastings: 404504.426487

OS Northings: 166583.515586

OS Grid: SU045665

Mapcode National: GBR 3VV.95Y

Mapcode Global: VHB49.D31X

Entry Name: Pair of bell barrows and a pair of bowl barrows forming part of a barrow cemetery at Baltic Farm

Scheduled Date: 10 November 1964

Last Amended: 11 January 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1013775

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21889

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Bishops Cannings

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Church of England Parish: Bishop's Cannings and Etchilhampton St Mary the Virgin

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

Details

The monument includes a pair of bell barrows and a pair of bowl barrows
which, along with a further bell barrow to the north east, form a round barrow
cemetery at Baltic Farm on North Down. This cemetery is one of a number of
barrow cemeteries located on the Downs. The barrows are aligned broadly north
east to south west.
The bell barrow at the western end of the group has a mound 19m in diameter
which stands up to 3m high. It is surrounded by a 4.5m wide berm around which
lies a quarry ditch from which material was obtained during the construction
of the mound. This ditch is no longer visible at ground level but survives as
a buried feature c.5.5m wide. The barrow was partially excavated by Colt-Hoare
who found a cremation burial near the centre of the mound. Immediately to the
east and between the two bell barrows lies a bowl barrow, the mound of which
measures c.8m in diameter and 0.9m high. There is no evidence that this barrow
was ever surrounded by a ditch and it appears to have been deliberately placed
between the two bell barrows at a slightly later date. When partly excavated
by Cunnington this barrow was found to contain a cremation burial accompanied
by a shale or jet ornament and a bone pin. The barrow may also have been
excavated by Colt-Hoare who found a further cremation just to the north.
The eastern bell barrow mound measures 17m in diameter and stands up to 2.4m
high. Although no longer visible, its outer berm is known to measure c.4m
across and is surrounded by a 5m wide quarry ditch. Both Cunnington and
Colt-Hoare carried out partial excavations on this mound.
At the eastern end of the monument is a second bowl barrow. This has a mound
which measures 13m in diameter and 0.9m high. Although no longer visible at
ground level, it is surrounded by a 2m wide quarry ditch which can be seen on
aerial photographs.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age
periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised, with references in the
17th century, are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a
World Heritage Site. In the Avebury area, the henge monument itself, the West
Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, West Kennet long barrow, Windmill Hill
causewayed enclosure and the enigmatic Silbury Hill are well-known. Whilst the
other Neolithic long barrows, the many Bronze Age round barrows and other
associated sites are less well-known, together they define one of the richest
and most varied areas of Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and ritual
monuments in the country. Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age
(2000-700 BC). They comprise closely-spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows -
rubble or earthen mounds covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries
developed over a considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in
some cases acted as a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period.
They exhibit considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently
including several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated
with earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has
occurred, contemporary or later `flat' burials between the barrow mounds have
often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland
England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are
clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both
here and at Stonehenge. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their
longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of
beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities. All
examples are considered worthy of protection.

The pair of bowl barrows and the pair of bell barrows forming part of the
cemetery at Baltic Farm survive well and are known from part excavations to
contain archaeological and environmental information relating to the
construction of the cemetery and the landscape in which it was built.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Grinsell, L V, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire, (1957), 208
Grinsell, L V, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire, (1957), 208
Hoare, R C, Ancient Wiltshire, (1812), 92
Hoare, R C, Ancient Wiltshire, (1812), 92
Other
SU06NW 620, C.A.O., BELL BARROW EXCAVATED BY HOARE, (1992)
SU06NW 621, C.A.O., BELL BARROW, (1992)
SU06NW 622, C.A.O., BOWL BARROW EXCAVATED BY CUNNINGTON, (1992)
SU06NW 623, C.A.O., BOWL BARROW, (1992)
The Baltic Farm barrows arch. history, JEFFERY, P.P., DISCUSSION WITH MR R. CANHAM (C.A.O.), (1994)
The find is not catalogued or located, Jeffery, P P, Shale or Jet Ornament and Bone Pin barrow 30, (1994)
Title: Ordnance Survey 6" Series
Source Date: 1960
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Title: Ordnance Survey 6"
Source Date: 1960
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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