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Wayside cross 120m south west of All Saints' Church

A Scheduled Monument in Bradford, Devon

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.8423 / 50°50'32"N

Longitude: -4.2454 / 4°14'43"W

OS Eastings: 242003.6905

OS Northings: 107159.157

OS Grid: SS420071

Mapcode National: GBR KH.W6B5

Mapcode Global: FRA 16ZW.5VS

Entry Name: Wayside cross 120m south west of All Saints' Church

Scheduled Date: 20 December 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1013729

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27301

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Bradford

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Church of England Parish: Bradford with Cookbury

Church of England Diocese: Exeter

Details

This monument includes a medieval wayside cross shaft with a restored head and
arms, embedded in a 20th century pedestal, situated at the roadside beside a
junction leading to the church in the village of Bradford. Although the cross
is not precisely in its original position, it is likely to be close to it.
The stone pedestal of the cross is circular with an overall diameter of 2m and
height of 0.8m. This pedestal is partly built into the garden wall of a
neighbouring cottage. Above the pedestal are two circular steps. Within the
upper step an ancient cross shaft is embedded. The shaft measures 1.04m high
and has a basal width of 0.3m which tapers upwards to a width of 0.23m. It is
of octagonal section in common with many of Devon's wayside crosses, with a
likely date of 14th to 15th century. Above is a restored head and arms with a
height of 0.94m and a thickness of 0.23m. This is also of octagonal section.
Excluded from the scheduling are the garden wall of Stone Cross Cottage, and
the metalled road surface where this falls within the cross's protective
margin, although the ground beneath the metalled road surface is included.
The cross is Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The shaft of the wayside cross at Bradford is of ancient date and, although
not in its original position, it is unlikely to have been moved far. The
restoration of the head and arms is in keeping with the expected original
type, preserving the overall octagonal cross section. Although the shape of
the pedestal is likely to have originally been octagonal or square, its
present circular form does not detract from the monument and continues to
symbolise the original imposing stature of the cross, whilst also serving as a
protection from damage by passing traffic.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Masson Phillips, E, 'Devonshire Association Transactions' in The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon : Part 1, , Vol. 69, (1936-37), 318
Other
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX40NW-004,
MPP fieldwork by H. Gerrard, (1994)

Source: Historic England

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