Ancient Monuments

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Medieval moated site with adjacent late medieval Pondbay, Walsh Manor, Crowborough

A Scheduled Monument in Crowborough, East Sussex

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Latitude: 51.0366 / 51°2'11"N

Longitude: 0.1734 / 0°10'24"E

OS Eastings: 552476.241037

OS Northings: 128609.661357

OS Grid: TQ524286

Mapcode National: GBR MQT.W3H

Mapcode Global: FRA C67C.Z82

Entry Name: Medieval moated site with adjacent late medieval Pondbay, Walsh Manor, Crowborough

Scheduled Date: 6 November 1973

Last Amended: 23 July 1990

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012784

English Heritage Legacy ID: 12732

County: East Sussex

Civil Parish: Crowborough

Traditional County: Sussex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): East Sussex

Church of England Parish: Jarvis Brook St Michael and All Angels

Church of England Diocese: Chichester


The moated site is represented by a rectangular ditched area 85m by 50m with
an extension at the north-west corner which formed a fishpond associated with
the moated site. Also included is an earthen bank to the west of the moat
which formerly dammed a stream to provide power for an iron-works. Moated
sites are generally seen as the prestigious residences of the Lords of the
manor. The moat marked the high status of the occupier, but also served to
deter casual raiders and wild animals. Most moats were constructed between
1250 and 1350, and it is to this period that the example at Walsh Manor is
likely to date.
On the eastern side of the moated site is an entrance causeway 25m long which
is flanked by shallow ponds on either side. The more northerly of these ponds
is linked to the moated site by a drain and empties into the eastward flowing
stream nearby. Being on the downstream side of the moated site, these ponds
are considered to have been an ornamental addition to the entrance way rather
than to have functioned as fishponds.
On the western side of the moated site is a well-preserved pondbay stretching
across the narrow valley. Pondbays are dams which held back water to drive a
water-wheel which in turn powered the heavy ore-crushing hammers and bellows
of iron-works. Pondbays were employed from the 15th-18th centuries, and are
typically associated with other remains of the iron-works such as the wheel-
pit, blast furnace and casting floor, all of which were sited near the
The fencing around parts of the monument are excluded from the scheduling.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites
served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the
provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical
military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was
between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in
central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built
throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and
exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a
significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding
of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples
provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

The moated site at Walsh Manor shows a diversity of component parts including
an unusual ornamental entrance and is of high archaeological potential due to
its continued waterlogging. The pondbay is one of ca.100 such monuments known
in the Weald and represents a dammed pond and an associated iron-works dating
to the 15th-18th centuries, the remains of which are considered likely to
survive in the area between the pondbay and the moated site.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Cleere, H, Crossley, D, The Iron Industry of the Weald, (1985), 219-76
Darvill, T., MPP Single Monument Class Description - Moats, (1988)
TQ 52 NW 10,

Source: Historic England

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