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Enclosures, small cairnfield and carved rocks on Pancake Ridge

A Scheduled Monument in Ilkley, Bradford

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.9117 / 53°54'42"N

Longitude: -1.7982 / 1°47'53"W

OS Eastings: 413355.455616

OS Northings: 446190.322303

OS Grid: SE133461

Mapcode National: GBR HRW6.HH

Mapcode Global: WHC8P.BYZ3

Entry Name: Enclosures, small cairnfield and carved rocks on Pancake Ridge

Scheduled Date: 17 October 1930

Last Amended: 11 July 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012006

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25360

County: Bradford

Civil Parish: Ilkley

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Ben Rhydding St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Leeds

Details

The monument includes a complex of fragmentary rubble banks forming a series
of three or more enclosures, a number of small cairns, and at least eight
carved rocks.
The rubble banks are typically c.1.5m wide and 0.3m high. Most are not
conspicuously orthostatic, but do incorporate occasional large boulders, one
of which is carved. The banks forming the largest sub-rectangular enclosure
give the impression of being discontinuous by design rather than through
robbing.
The cairns are small, in the range of 3m-5m in diameter. Only one is
conspicuously disturbed. The disturbed cairn has a large central hollow which
is probably the result of excavation.
The carved rocks have designs in the cup and ring tradition. They include
Pancake Rock, a prominent rock with complex carvings consisting mainly of cup
marks. Three of the rocks are situated in an area defined by a low scarp which
may be a prehistoric quarry. A further carved rock is reported in the area but
cannot now be found.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of
rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich
in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock
carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered
across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed
settlements are also known.
Cairnfields are concentrations of cairns sited in close proximity to one
another. They often consist largely of clearance cairns, built with stone
cleared from the surrounding landsurface to improve its use for agriculture,
and occasionally their distribution can be seen to define field plots.
However, funerary cairns are also frequently incorporated, although without
excavation it may be impossible to determine which cairns contain burials.
Clearance cairns were constructed during the Neolithic period (from c.3400
BC), although the majority of examples appear to be the result of field
clearance which began during the earlier Bronze Age and continued into the
later Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). The considerable longevity and variation in
the size, content and association of cairnfields provide important information
on the development and associations of land use and agricultural practices.
Cairnfields also retain information on the diversity of beliefs and social
organisation during the prehistoric period.

Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed
by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date from the Bronze
Age(c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They
are believed to have been constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock
penning, or crop growing, and may also have been used for ritual purposes.
They may be subdidvided into a series of smaller enclosures; those used for
settlement retain evidence of the round huts originally located within them.
The size and form of the enclosures vary considerably, depending on their
particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relation to other
monument classes provide important information on the diversity of social
organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They are
particularly representative of their period, and a substantial proportion of
surviving examples are worthy of protection.
Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in
many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England
in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form
of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked
into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more
`rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also
exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also
occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or
may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and
Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one of our most important
insights into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains
unknown, but they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All
positively identified prehistoric rock carvings sites will normally be
identified as nationally important.
This monument combines a small cairnfield with three or more prehistoric
enclosures, an assortment of rubble banks and a number of carved rocks.
Although one of the cairns is disturbed, the other features survive well.
Together they form an important part of the prehistoric landscape on this part
of Rombalds Moor.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 96
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 96
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 97
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 48
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 48
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 48
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 48
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49

Source: Historic England

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