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Iron Age and Romano British settlement remains and associated features, 1km south east of Leaze Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Buscot, Oxfordshire

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Latitude: 51.6849 / 51°41'5"N

Longitude: -1.6564 / 1°39'22"W

OS Eastings: 423852.838655

OS Northings: 198513.115312

OS Grid: SU238985

Mapcode National: GBR 5VD.81T

Mapcode Global: VHC0C.7XP7

Entry Name: Iron Age and Romano British settlement remains and associated features, 1km south east of Leaze Farm

Scheduled Date: 1 March 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011604

English Heritage Legacy ID: 13807

County: Oxfordshire

Civil Parish: Buscot

Traditional County: Gloucestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Oxfordshire

Church of England Parish: Lechlade St Lawrence

Church of England Diocese: Gloucester


The monument includes an area of Iron Age and Romano-British settlement
remains and associated features situated on gravel terraces on the north side
of the Upper Thames Valley. The site was first identified by the presence of
cropmarks, visible from the air, and artefacts recovered from the field
surface. Subsequent investigations have also demonstrated the survival of
slight earthwork remains. Further remains, masked by alluvium are likely to
survive beyond those which are currently known.
Interpretation of the aerial photographs taken at Leaze Farm has revealed that
the site contains a range of features, as well as demonstrating that there is
variation in their form and the density of their distribution within the
monument. Four main areas can be identified:
To the north, a number of small free-standing sub-square enclosures are
visible, partly enclosed, to the north, east and south, by a larger, single
ditched enclosure. Part of a trackway is visible running off from the
enclosure to the north east. Some pits, most in a SSW-NNE alignment, lie
immediately to the west, separated from the enclosures by what may be a later
field boundary.
At the centre and on the west side of the monument is a concentration of
linear features. To the north, trackways and drainage ditches appear to
enclose a series of north-south aligned field boundaries. These features are
thought to be contemporary. A further concentration of other trackways and
field boundaries to the south overlap and intercut with each other. These
represent several phases of activity, related to the remains in the south east
The south east corner of the monument contains a group of small sub-square and
square enclosures, mostly within an area defined by two north-south aligned
trackways which appear to converge at a point close to the river. One
enclosure overlies or underlies the western trackway, suggesting at least two
phases of activity. The south west corner of the monument contains a scatter
of enclosures similar in form and spacing to those at the north. Sections of a
trackway appear to define the eastern boundary of this distribution.
In addition to the visibility of features on aerial photographs, earthworks
have been identified over the years. These are thought to include the agger -
or raised surface - of a Roman road and, adjacent to this, a low platform,
probably representing a building.
Finds from the field surface have provided a date range for the occupation of
the Leaze Farm complex. A large quantity of Iron Age and Roman pottery has
been found, as have about 50 Roman coins dating to between the mid first and
late fourth centuries, and metalwork, some of which - brooches and a horse
harness - show Roman military affinities.
The complex of remains at Leaze Farm is broadly similar to a number of other
complexes recorded in the Thames Valley. Taken together these make up a
pattern of Iron Age and Roman settlement within the area.
All modern drainage ditches and fences are excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath the fences is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The settlement and associated remains at Leaze Farm represent one of around 20
broadly similar sites recorded on aerial photographs in the Upper Thames
Valley. These photographs have been the subject of a detailed review by the
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. All of the sites have
been levelled by ploughing over the years but retain archaeological remains in
and below the ploughsoil.
Only a small number of the sites have been the subject of significant
examination through excavation, but these have demonstrated that the remains
are both more complex and more extensive than the evidence from aerial
photographs suggests. Taken together, these sites, all of which lie to the
north of the river, are important for their contribution to our understanding
of the developing pattern of settlement in this zone from the Late Iron Age
through to the Roman period. Although superficially similar, the sites show
great diversity in terms of the area covered, the range of features present,
and the distribution and density of features across the sites.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, , Iron Age and Roman Monuments in the Gloucestershire Cotswolds, (1976)
'Oxford Archaeological Unit' in Plot of Occupation Material, (1982)
Air Photography Unit, Crop marks at Leaze Farm, Lechlade:a report for English Heritage, (1994)
Miles, D, (1994)
RCHME 1:10000, Edis, J., Plot of Cropmarks in Lechlade Area, (1988)
Title: An Archaeological Strategy for the Upper Thames Gravels in Glos
Source Date: 1982

Source: Historic England

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