Ancient Monuments

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Romano-British farmstead 260m west of Plashetts Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Bavington, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.1268 / 55°7'36"N

Longitude: -2.0547 / 2°3'17"W

OS Eastings: 396607.487009

OS Northings: 581381.070155

OS Grid: NY966813

Mapcode National: GBR G924.YZ

Mapcode Global: WHB1M.DDSK

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead 260m west of Plashetts Farm

Scheduled Date: 22 July 1964

Last Amended: 20 September 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011555

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21031

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Bavington

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Thockrington St Aidan

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated on the broad valley floor at the foot of Sweethope Crags. The
farmstead, roughly circular in shape, measures a maximum of 40m east-west by
30m north-south within a bank of earth and stone 4m wide and standing to a
height of 1m. Outside the bank there is a broad ditch 10m wide and 1.4m deep
below the top of the bank. On the outer edge of the ditch there is a well
defined counterscarp bank, formed by the material dug from the ditch. The
original entrance existed in the centre of the eastern wall but this has been
partially damaged by the construction of a modern track through it. The breach
in the western wall is also modern. Within the enclosure there are the stone
foundations of at least two circular houses, on average 7.5m in diameter with
walls standing to a height of 0.2m. Further stone foundations in the interior
are interpreted as the rectangular buildings of a later phase of activity
within the enclosure. The field wall which crosses the enclosure from east to
west is excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath it is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead west of Plashetts Farm is very well preserved and retains
significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of similar
settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the settlement
pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Bradley, , Brown, , Winter, , Lawson, , Rushworth, , Ray Demesne Estate Assesment Report, (1987), 2-3

Source: Historic England

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