Ancient Monuments

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Romano-British farmstead, 440m south of Hawick Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Bavington, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.1341 / 55°8'2"N

Longitude: -2.0586 / 2°3'31"W

OS Eastings: 396359.242291

OS Northings: 582196.060107

OS Grid: NY963821

Mapcode National: GBR G922.3C

Mapcode Global: WHB1M.B6YY

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead, 440m south of Hawick Farm

Scheduled Date: 3 December 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007529

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21045

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Bavington

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Kirkwhelpington with Kirkharle and Kirkheaton

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes the remains of a stone built farmstead of Romano-British
date situated on sloping ground at the north-east end of Hawick Crags. The
enclosure, which enjoys a south-easterly aspect is oval in shape and has
internal dimensions of 38m north-south by 29m east-west. The western side of
the enclosure has been scooped into the hillslope and it is bounded on the
east and south, the downslope side, by a bank of stone and earth 5m wide which
stands to a height of 0.5m. Within the enclosure, situated against the south
wall, there are the stone foundations of a circular building 7m in diameter.
Attached to the south-eastern side of the enclosure there is a low bank which
runs to the east for 28m before turning to the north and running for 12m; this
is interpreted as the remains of an ancillary enclosure wall.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead south of Hawick is well preserved and retains significant
archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of Romano-British settlements in
the vicinity and will contribute to any study of the settlement pattern at
this time.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960), 36

Source: Historic England

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