Ancient Monuments

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Romano-British enclosed settlement on Beanley Moor, 800m south-east of Broomhouse

A Scheduled Monument in Eglingham, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.4595 / 55°27'34"N

Longitude: -1.8292 / 1°49'45"W

OS Eastings: 410897.191653

OS Northings: 618415.630737

OS Grid: NU108184

Mapcode National: GBR H5N9.SR

Mapcode Global: WHC19.W13J

Entry Name: Romano-British enclosed settlement on Beanley Moor, 800m south-east of Broomhouse

Scheduled Date: 20 September 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011548

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21023

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Eglingham

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Eglingham St Maurice

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes the remains of a stone built settlement of Romano-
British date, situated on a gradually sloping site on the north-east side of
Beanley Moor. The settlement comprises an oval enclosure measuring 34m by 33m
across within walls 4m wide and 1m high. It has an entrance in the south-
east side. The enclosure is divided by an internal wall and there are three
hut circles situated to the north of this, against the inside of the north-
eastern wall of the enclosure. South-east of this enclosure there are the
fragmentary remains of stone walling with a small hut-circle at the southern
end; these are interpreted as the remains of an ancillary enclosure
associated with the farmstead.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The Romano-British settlement south-east of Broomhouse is exceptionally well
preserved; the remains are extensive and well defined and retain significant
archaeological deposits. The importance of the monument is enhanced by the
survival of similar and other forms of later prehistoric settlement in the
vicinity; it will contribute to any study of the wider settlement pattern at
this time.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana, 4 ser 42' in Enclosed Stone Built Settlements in Northumberland, (1964), 64

Source: Historic England

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