Ancient Monuments

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Ravens Gill Romano-British farmstead

A Scheduled Monument in Crosby Ravensworth, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.5071 / 54°30'25"N

Longitude: -2.5769 / 2°34'36"W

OS Eastings: 362743.537679

OS Northings: 512574.691683

OS Grid: NY627125

Mapcode National: GBR BJFB.X3

Mapcode Global: WH934.DZ45

Entry Name: Ravens Gill Romano-British farmstead

Scheduled Date: 26 October 1936

Last Amended: 17 September 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011510

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22461

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Crosby Ravensworth

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Crosby Ravensworth St Lawrence

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument is Ravens Gill Romano-British farmstead, one of a number of such
sites surrounding the head of the Lyvennet valley. The site occupies a small
south facing slope or scar which, like a step, separates level ground above it
from level ground below. It includes an irregular oval-shaped enclosure
measuring 18m by 16.5m with a surrounding bank up to 1m high. There is an
entrance to the enclosure's eastern side. To the south and east of the
enclosure lie further banks defining additional features originally associated
with the enclosure. Some of these banks have been disturbed by shallow surface
quarrying. The site would have been in use during the period of the Roman
occupation. It lies in an area once occupied by a tribal grouping known as the
A post and wire fence on the monument's western side is excluded from the
scheduling, but the ground beneath it is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Ravens Gill Romano-British farmstead is one of a number of similar settlements
grouped around the head of the Lyvennet valley. Despite some damage to the
monument by later quarrying the site survives well and will retain significant
information regarding its original form and use.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Ant & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Prehistoric Settlements Near Crosby Ravensworth, , Vol. XXXIII, (1936)
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)

Source: Historic England

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