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Tor cairn forming part of a round cairn cemetery, and a stone hut circle on the summit of Cox Tor

A Scheduled Monument in Peter Tavy, Devon

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.5669 / 50°34'0"N

Longitude: -4.0761 / 4°4'33"W

OS Eastings: 253065.39413

OS Northings: 76181.744258

OS Grid: SX530761

Mapcode National: GBR NZ.FNVN

Mapcode Global: FRA 27BK.RTV

Entry Name: Tor cairn forming part of a round cairn cemetery, and a stone hut circle on the summit of Cox Tor

Scheduled Date: 27 June 1963

Last Amended: 9 September 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011500

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22225

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Peter Tavy

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Details

This monument includes a tor cairn and small stone hut circle situated on the
summit of Cox Tor. The cairn has a continuous bank of small stones measuring
9.5m wide and 2.5m high situated around a 13m diameter rock outcrop. The
overall diameter of the cairn is 32m. The cairn has seen limited damage as a
result of three small shelters being constructed into the cairn material. The
largest of these measures 6m long by 2.3m wide and has been largely backfilled
with stones. The other two are circular in plan and may be of relatively
recent origin. An Ordnance Survey triangulation pillar sits on the eastern
side of the cairn bank. This cairn forms part of a round cairn cemetery
including two round cairns, two tor cairns and two ring cairns.
The stone hut circle lies 11m north-east of the cairn and survives as an oval
rubble bank. The interior of the structure measures 1.7m long by 1.5m wide
and is defined by a rubble bank 0.9m wide standing up to 0.3m high. The
doorway faces north.
The Ordnance Survey triangulation pillar is excluded from the scheduling
although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Dartmoor is the largest expanse of open moorland in southern Britain and,
because of exceptional conditions of preservation, it is also one of the most
complete examples of an upland relict landscape in the whole country. The
great wealth and diversity of archaeological remains provides direct evidence
for human exploitation of the Moor from the early prehistoric period onwards.
The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites,
land boundaries, trackways, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later
industrial remains, gives significant insights into successive changes in the
pattern of land use through time.
Tor cairns are ceremonial monuments dating to the Early and Middle Bronze Age
(c.2000-1000 BC). They were constructed as ring banks of stone rubble, up to
35m in external diameter, sometimes with entrances and external ditches, and
roughly concentric around natural outcrops or tors. In some cases a kerb of
edge-set stones bounded the inner edge of the bank, and the area between the
bank and the outcrop was sometimes in-filled by laying down a platform of
stone rubble or turves. Excavated examples have revealed post-holes and pits
within the area defined by the ring-bank, some containing burial evidence, and
scatters of Bronze Age artefacts concentrated around the central tor. Tor
cairns usually occur as isolated monuments, though several are associated with
broadly contemporary cairn cemeteries. They are very rare nationally with only
40-50 known examples concentrated on the higher moors of Devon and Cornwall,
where their situation in prominent locations makes them a major visual element
in the modern landscape. As a rare monument type, all surviving examples are
considered worthy of preservation.

Stone hut circles and hut circle settlements were the dwelling places of
prehistoric farmers on Dartmoor. They mostly date from the Bronze Age, with
the earliest examples on the Moor in this building tradition dating to about
1700 BC. The stone-based round houses consist of low walls or banks enclosing
a circular floor area; remains of the turf or thatch roof are not preserved.
The huts may occur singly or in small or large groups and may lie in the open
or be enclosed by a bank of earth and stone. Although they are common on the
Moor, their longevity and their relationship with other monument types
provides important information on the diversity of social organisation and
farming practices amongst prehistoric communities. They are particularly
representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving
examples are considered worthy of protection.
Despite limited damage to the tor cairn and partial excavation of the stone
hut circle, this monument survives comparatively well. The cairn is an
important visual landmark and is one of the largest tor cairns on Dartmoor.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Butler, J, Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities, (1991), 83
Butler, J, Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities, (1991), 83-4
Baring Gould, S, 'Devonshire Association Transactions' in Fifth Report of the Dartmoor Exploration Committee, (1898), 105
Baring Gould, S, 'Devonshire Association Transactions' in Fifth Report of the Dartmoor Exploration Committee, (1898), 104-5
Grinsell, L V, 'Devon Archaeological Society Proceedings' in Dartmoor Barrows, , Vol. 36, (1978), 161
Other
Decon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX57NW40,
Gibson, A, Single Monument Class Description - Stone Hut Circles, (1987)

Source: Historic England

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