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Bowl barrow 400m south east of Greenland Farm, forming part of a linear round barrow cemetery west of the Lesser Cursus

A Scheduled Monument in Winterbourne Stoke, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.1903 / 51°11'25"N

Longitude: -1.8566 / 1°51'23"W

OS Eastings: 410120

OS Northings: 143460.759001

OS Grid: SU101434

Mapcode National: GBR 3YG.CFT

Mapcode Global: VHB59.RBWW

Entry Name: Bowl barrow 400m south east of Greenland Farm, forming part of a linear round barrow cemetery west of the Lesser Cursus

Scheduled Date: 10 March 1925

Last Amended: 20 June 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1010898

English Heritage Legacy ID: 10348

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Winterbourne Stoke

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Church of England Parish: Winterbourne Stoke St Peter

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

Details

The monument includes a levelled bowl barrow located 400m south east of
Greenland Farm and forming part of a linear round barrow cemetery aligned
broadly east to west and occupying a south facing slope on Winterbourne Stoke
Down, west of the Lesser Cursus. The cemetery contains six round barrows in
all, including four bowl barrows and two bell barrows. Although the barrow is
now difficult to identify on the ground, partial excavation in 1961 revealed a
mound 18.4m in diameter and a surrounding ditch 4.2m wide, from which material
was quarried during its construction, giving the barrow an overall diameter of
26.8m. A rectangle of stakeholes surrounding a pit containing a cremation was
also identified. Evidence of burning was revealed during a 19th century
partial excavation.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods.
Two of the best known and earliest recognised areas are around Avebury and
Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site.
The area of chalk downland which surrounds Stonehenge contains one of the
densest and most varied groups of Neolithic and Bronze Age field monuments in
Britain. Included within the area are Stonehenge itself, the Stonehenge
cursus, the Durrington Walls henge, and a variety of burial monuments, many
grouped into cemeteries.
The area has been the subject of archaeological research since the 18th
century when Stukeley recorded many of the monuments and partially excavated a
number of the burial mounds. More recently, the collection of artefacts from
the surfaces of ploughed fields has supplemented the evidence for ritual and
burial by revealing the intensity of contemporary settlement and land-use. In
view of the importance of the area, all ceremonial and sepulchral monuments of
this period which retain significant archaeological remains are identified as
nationally important.
Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated with
earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has
occurred, contemporary or later 'flat' burials between the barrow mounds have
often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland
England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are
clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both
here and at Avebury. Often occupying prominent positions, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their
longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of
beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were
constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered
single or multiple burials. Often superficially similar, although differing
widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a variety of
burial practices. The burials, either inhumations or cremations, are
sometimes accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. There
are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and at least 320 in
the Stonehenge area.
The bowl barrow 400m south east of Greenland Farm forms an integral part of
the linear round barrow cemetery west of the Lesser Cursus and is known from
partial excavation to contain archaeological remains and environmental
evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was
constructed.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 202
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 165
RCHME, , Stonehenge and its Environs, (1979), 6
'Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine.' in Excavation and Fieldwork in Wiltshire, , Vol. 58, (), 241
Vatcher, F de M, H L, , 'Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine' in Tweleve Wiltshire Round Barrows, , Vol. 82, (1979), 50-55

Source: Historic England

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