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Roman camp and section of Roman road on Lofshaw Hill

A Scheduled Monument in Hutton, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.6397 / 54°38'22"N

Longitude: -2.9483 / 2°56'53"W

OS Eastings: 338891.23185

OS Northings: 527589.307734

OS Grid: NY388275

Mapcode National: GBR 7GVS.HK

Mapcode Global: WH817.PM7Z

Entry Name: Roman camp and section of Roman road on Lofshaw Hill

Scheduled Date: 30 March 1972

Last Amended: 30 January 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1010826

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23754

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Hutton

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Mungrisdale

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Details

The monument includes a Roman camp and a length of Roman road located on the
southern slopes of Lofshaw Hill from where there are extensive views in all
directions. The camp is sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners and
measures approximately 430m by 370m internally. It has defences consisting of
a rampart and ditch strengthened at the north west corner by an additional
outer mound and ditch, and has entrances on each of its four sides. The
rampart stands up to 1m high in places and measures 3.6m - 4.5m wide; it is
flanked by a ditch, now partly silted up, but still seen to be up to 4m wide
by 0.3m deep. At the north west corner the camp's ditch has been cut into
bedrock and the upcast has been used to create a small outer mound beyond
which are faint traces of an outer ditch. The north and south entrances are
both defended by internal and external claviculae: a clavicula is a curving
continuation of the rampart and ditch which partially obstructs access through
the gateway. The east and west entrances are both defended by external
claviculae. The Roman road connecting Troutbeck Roman fort with the fort at
Old Penrith, known to the Romans as Voreda, passes the camp's south side and
can be seen as a raised agger or mound approximately 10m wide with faint
traces of side ditches. It deviates around small quarry workings adjacent to
the camp's south western corner and continues along lower ground to the west.
The camp is thought to date to the late first century AD during the period
when the Roman army was consolidating its position in northern England and in
particular turning its attention to the policing of the Lake District and its
indigenous population.
All field boundaries are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath
them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Roman camps are rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosures which were
constructed and used by Roman soldiers either when out on campaign or as
practice camps; most campaign camps were only temporary overnight bases and
few were used for longer periods. They were bounded by a single earthen
rampart and outer ditch and in plan are always straight-sided with rounded
corners. Normally they have between one and four entrances, although as many
as eleven have been recorded. Such entrances were usually centrally placed in
the sides of the camp and were often protected by additional defensive
outworks. Roman camps are found throughout much of England, although most
known examples lie in the midlands and north. Around 140 examples have been
identified and, as one of the various types of defensive enclosure built by
the Roman Army, particularly in hostile upland and frontier areas, they
provide an important insight into Roman military strategy and organisation.
All well-preserved examples are identified as being of national importance.

Despite some damage to the monument's defensive rampart by past ridge and
furrow ploughing, the Roman camp and Roman road on Lofshaw Hill survives
reasonably well. The camp is one of a group of sites in the immediate
vicinity, the others being a fort and two further camps, each of which display
marked differences in plan, numbers of gateways, size and subsequent troop
disposition. The monument will contribute to any study of Roman military
campaigning in northern England.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Bellhouse, R L, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Roman Temporary Camps Near Troutbeck, Cumberland, (1957), 28-36
Bellhouse, R L, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Roman Temporary Camps Near Troutbeck, Cumberland, (1957), 28-36
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Hill Fort on Carrock Fell, , Vol. XXXVIII, (1938), 32-41
Shotter, D C A, 'Roman North-West England' in Roman North-West England, (1984)
St Joseph, J K, 'Journal of Roman Studies' in Aerial Reconniassance in Britain, 1951-55, , Vol. 45, (1955), 83-4
Other
RCHME, Roman Temporary Camps, Forthcoming

Source: Historic England

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