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Roman camp and section of Roman road 700m south east of Field Head Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Hutton, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.637 / 54°38'13"N

Longitude: -2.9559 / 2°57'21"W

OS Eastings: 338400.842926

OS Northings: 527299.609866

OS Grid: NY384272

Mapcode National: GBR 7GST.VJ

Mapcode Global: WH817.KQN1

Entry Name: Roman camp and section of Roman road 700m south east of Field Head Farm

Scheduled Date: 5 February 1962

Last Amended: 30 January 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1010825

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23753

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Hutton

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Mungrisdale

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Details

The monument includes a Roman camp and a length of Roman road located on high
ground at the head of the wide valley of the River Glenderamackin and the
Trout Beck, from where it commands extensive views westwards towards Keswick,
northwards through the Caldew valley, and southwards over Matterdale and
Threlkeld commons. The camp is a parallelogram in plan with rounded corners
and measures approximately 78m and 80m internally along its north and south
sides, by 79m and 78m internally along its east and west sides. It has
defences consisting of a rampart, ditch and outer bank, with entrances on the
south and west sides. Limited excavation across the defences on the camp's
south side in 1955 found the rampart to measure 3m-4.5m wide and up to 0.6m
high. It was formed of turves and cobbles. The ditch was found to measure 2.7m
wide by 1.4m deep. A berm up to 0.3m wide separates the rampart from the
ditch. The outer bank is formed from the material cast up from the ditch and
measures up to 6m wide by 0.3m high. The two entrances are each defended by
internal and external claviculae: a clavicula is a curving continuation of the
rampart and ditch which partially obstructs access through the entrance. The
Roman road connecting Troutbeck Roman fort with the fort at Old Penrith, known
to the Romans as Voreda, passes the camp's south side and can be seen as a
raised agger or mound approximately 10m wide with faint traces of side
ditches. A thin gravel spread beyond the camp's ditch was found during the
1955 excavation and is considered to represent a path connecting the gateway
of the camp with the road.

The camp is thought to date to the late first century AD during the period
when the Roman army was consolidating its position in northern England and in
particular turning its attention to the policing of the Lake District and its
indigenous population.

All field boundaries and gateposts are excluded from the scheduling, but the
ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Roman camps are rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosures which were
constructed and used by Roman soldiers either when out on campaign or as
practice camps; most campaign camps were only temporary overnight bases and
few were used for longer periods. They were bounded by a single earthen
rampart and outer ditch and in plan are always straight-sided with rounded
corners. Normally they have between one and four entrances, although as many
as eleven have been recorded. Such entrances were usually centrally placed in
the sides of the camp and were often protected by additional defensive
outworks. Roman camps are found throughout much of England, although most
known examples lie in the midlands and north. Around 140 examples have been
identified and, as one of the various types of defensive enclosure built by
the Roman Army, particularly in hostile upland and frontier areas, they
provide an important insight into Roman military strategy and organisation.
All well-preserved examples are identified as being of national importance.

Despite being crossed by ridge and furrow ploughing, the Roman camp and Roman
road 700m south east of Field Head Farm survive reasonaby well, the camp's
defensive earthworks in particular remaining well preserved. It is one of a
group of sites in the immediate vicinity, the others being a fort and two
further camps, each of which display marked differences in plan, numbers of
gateways, size and subsequent troop disposition. The monument will contribute
to any study of Roman military campaigning in northern England.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Bellhouse, R L, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Roman Temporary Camps Near Troutbeck, Cumberland, , Vol. LVI, (1957), 28-36
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in The Hill Fort on Carrock Fell, , Vol. XXXVIII, (1938), 32-41
Shotter, D C A, 'Roman North-West England' in Roman North-West England, (1984), 21
St Joseph, J K, 'Journal of Roman Studies' in Aerial Reconniassance in Britain, 1951-55, , Vol. 45, (1955), 83-4

Source: Historic England

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