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Middleton moated monastic grange, eight fishponds and connecting channels

A Scheduled Monument in Kingsley, Cheshire West and Chester

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.2888 / 53°17'19"N

Longitude: -2.6666 / 2°39'59"W

OS Eastings: 355660.000843

OS Northings: 377079.098714

OS Grid: SJ556770

Mapcode National: GBR 9ZTD.HR

Mapcode Global: WH993.0LHL

Entry Name: Middleton moated monastic grange, eight fishponds and connecting channels

Scheduled Date: 26 March 1992

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009847

English Heritage Legacy ID: 13515

County: Cheshire West and Chester

Civil Parish: Kingsley

Traditional County: Cheshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cheshire

Church of England Parish: Aston St Peter

Church of England Diocese: Chester

Details

The monument is Middleton medieval monastic moated grange together with eight
fishponds and connecting channels. It is divided into four separate
constraint areas. The site includes an island measuring some 64m by 54m that
is surrounded by a dry moat up to 12m wide and 2.5m deep. An outer bank 8m
wide and 1m high flanks the moat's southern arm. The southwest quadrant of
the island has been separated from the remainder by a dry ditch up to 8m wide
and 2.5m deep. In `The Coppice', to the east of the moat, lie eight fishponds
and connecting channels. At the northeastern end of `The Coppice' are a set
of three irregularly-shaped waterlogged ponds measuring, from north to south,
some 65m by 37m, 67m by 35m, and 24m by 16m. At the southeastern end of `The
Coppice' there is a second set of three ponds measuring, from north to south,
20m by 6m, 43m by 12m, and l7m by 11m. The northerly and central of these
ponds remains waterlogged, the southerly pond is dry. Situated between these
ponds and the moat are a further two waterlogged ponds, each measuring some
16m by 8m, with an outlet channel issuing from the westerly.
The site is considered to be the Mid-Eston referred to in Domesday and known
to have belonged to St Werburgh's Church in Chester. The site was confirmed
to Norton Priory by John Lacy, Earl of Lincoln and Halton c.1236. A chapel is
known to have existed at Middleton with a priest provided by Norton Priory.
After the Dissolution the chapel is thought to have continued in use and the
island occupied by Middleton Hall. Limited excavation in the moat in 1920
revealed stone octagonal pillars for supporting a timber bridge.
All field boundaries are excluded from the scheduling as is the corrugated
metal sheeting placed across the narrowest part of the northernmost fishpond.
The ground beneath these features, however, is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A monastic grange was a farm owned and run by a monastic community and
independent of the secular manorial system of communal agriculture and servile
labour. The function of granges was to provide food and raw materials for
consumption within the parent monastic house itself, and also to provide
surpluses for sale for profit. The first monastic granges appeared in the 12th
century but they continued to be constructed and used until the Dissolution.
This system of agriculture was pioneered by the Cistercian order but was soon
imitated by other orders. Some granges were worked by resident lay-brothers
(secular workers) of the order but others were staffed by non-resident
labourers. The majority of granges practised a mixed economy but some were
specialist in their function. Five types of grange are known: agrarian farms,
bercaries (sheep farms), vaccaries (cattle ranches), horse studs and
industrial complexes. A monastery might have more than one grange and the
wealthiest houses had many. Frequently a grange was established on lands
immediately adjacent to the monastery, this being known as the home grange.
Other granges, however, could be found wherever the monastic site held lands.
On occasion these could be located at some considerable distance from the
parent monastery. Granges are broadly comparable with contemporary secular
farms although the wealth of the parent house was frequently reflected in the
size of the grange and the layout and architectural embellishment of the
buildings. Additionally, because of their monastic connection, granges tend to
be much better documented than their secular counterparts. No region was
without monastic granges. The exact number of sites which originally existed
is not precisely known but can be estimated, on the basis of numbers of
monastic sites, at several thousand. Of these, however, only a small
percentage can be accurately located on the ground today. Of this group of
identifiable sites, continued intensive use of many has destroyed much of the
evidence of archaeological remains. In view of the importance of granges to
medieval rural and monastic life, all sites exhibiting good archaeological
survival are identified as nationally important.

Despite being located in a woodland context Middleton monastic grange survives
well. Its earthworks remain well preserved and the monument is unencumbered
by modern development. The site will therefore contain considerable evidence
of its original form and the activities which occurred on the enclosed island.
Limited excavation at the site found dressed stone remains and further
evidence of the monastic grange and subsequent Middleton Hall will exist. An
unusual aspect of this monument is its large number of associated waterlogged
fishponds which will retain organic material in their sediments. The scale of
the moated site and number and complexity of the associated fishponds confirm
that this was a grange of considerable importance to its founding monastery.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Talbot, H, Plan of Aston Moat, (1985)
JHEB, , 'Cheshire Sheaf' in Cheshire Sheaf, , Vol. 17, (1920)
Ormerod, G, 'History of Cheshire' in History of Cheshire, , Vol. 3, (1882)
Richards, R, 'Lancs And Chesh Arch Soc' in Trans Lancs And Chesh Arch Soc, , Vol. 102, (1950)
Other
Dennison, E, MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Fishponds, (1987)
Dennison, E., MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Fishponds, (1988)
SMR No. 932/1/1, Cheshire SMR, Middleton Grange, (1988)

Source: Historic England

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