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Headless Cross, Grimeford

A Scheduled Monument in Anderton, Lancashire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.6123 / 53°36'44"N

Longitude: -2.5775 / 2°34'38"W

OS Eastings: 361892.078825

OS Northings: 413011.121021

OS Grid: SD618130

Mapcode National: GBR BVFN.SV

Mapcode Global: WH97L.CGWM

Entry Name: Headless Cross, Grimeford

Scheduled Date: 21 May 1959

Last Amended: 9 August 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009496

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23748

County: Lancashire

Civil Parish: Anderton

Traditional County: Lancashire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lancashire

Church of England Parish: Adlington St Paul

Church of England Diocese: Blackburn

Details

The monument includes Headless Cross, part of the shaft of an Anglo-Saxon
decorated cross located on the roadside verge at the junction of Grimeford
Lane, Roscoe Lowe Brow and Rivington Lane. The shaft, which stands on a
modern base, is made from local sandstone and measures 1.05m high by 0.64m
wide and 0.27m deep. It is decorated on all four faces with carvings which
include the figure of a man from the waist down; a trellis filled with
geometrical ornamentation of horizontal and vertical straight lines repeated
to form a band known as a fret; a modified version of T-fret; and a
combination of vinescroll and frets. On the top of the shaft there is a post-
medieval flat sandstone slab, originally thought to have been the table of a
sundial, which has latterly been used as a direction stone by having the
words TO PRESTON, TO WIGGAN, TO BOULTON and TO BLAGBURN carved on its sides.
The shaft was reputedly found during construction of a local reservoir and
re-erected on or near what is believed to be its original site. It is thought
to be one of the wayside crosses marking the medieval route between Fulford
and the path which crossed Rascahay Brook, between Heath Charnock and
Adlington, referred to in a medieval document printed in the Chartulary of
Cockersands Abbey and dated c.1184-1190. The monument is Listed Grade II.
Four small cylindrical stone pillars close to the base of the cross are
excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Although only a portion of the original cross shaft survives, the remains of
Headless Cross displays a good example of Anglo-Saxon art styles. It is
mentioned in a 12th century document and is a rare survival of a wayside cross
in Lancashire.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Pevsner, N, Fleming, J, Honour, H, The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture, (1991), 168
Taylor, H, The Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire, (1906), 47-8
Other
AM7, Headless Cross, (1958)
DOE, List of Buildings of Historic & Architectural Interest,
FMW Report AM 107, Leech, P, Headless Cross, Grimeford, (1982)
Letter, Winstanley,J., (1950)
SMR No. 136, Lancs SMR, Headless Cross, Grimeford, (1994)

Source: Historic England

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