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Romano-British farmstead 850m south of Troughend

A Scheduled Monument in Otterburn, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.218 / 55°13'4"N

Longitude: -2.2134 / 2°12'48"W

OS Eastings: 386519.764333

OS Northings: 591554.423709

OS Grid: NY865915

Mapcode National: GBR D8Z3.L9

Mapcode Global: WHB14.Z35M

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead 850m south of Troughend

Scheduled Date: 20 October 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009380

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25101

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Otterburn

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Otterburn St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated in a commanding position above the Tofts Burn. The farmstead, sub-
rectangular in shape, measures a maximum of 40m east to west by 42m north to
south within a bank of stone and earth 2m-3m wide and a maximum height of 0.6m
above the exterior ground level. There is an entrance 3m wide in the eastern
side of the enclosure; a breach in the centre of the south wall is thought to
be a later insertion. Within the enclosure two sunken yards placed either side
of the entrance are visible as large rectangular depressions. Facing onto
these yards, at the rear of the enclosure, there are the remains of a
circular stone-founded house 14m in diameter and the site of a possible second
house visible as a circular depression. The monument underwent limited
excavation in 1936 when the post-holes of former buildings and pieces of
undiagnostic pottery within the enclosure were uncovered.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead south of Troughend is reasonably well preserved and retains
significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of similar Romano-
British settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the
settlement pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hope-Dodds, M, The Victoria History of the County of Northumberland: Volume XV, (1940), 36 56
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960), 36
Other
NY 89 SE 04,

Source: Historic England

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