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Stone circle, ring cairn and two round cairns on Cheetham Close

A Scheduled Monument in Bromley Cross, Bolton

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.6385 / 53°38'18"N

Longitude: -2.4301 / 2°25'48"W

OS Eastings: 371656.804913

OS Northings: 415862.150366

OS Grid: SD716158

Mapcode National: GBR CVGC.PF

Mapcode Global: WH97G.NT00

Entry Name: Stone circle, ring cairn and two round cairns on Cheetham Close

Scheduled Date: 30 November 1925

Last Amended: 29 July 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009121

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23732

County: Bolton

Electoral Ward/Division: Bromley Cross

Traditional County: Lancashire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Greater Manchester

Church of England Parish: Turton St Anne

Church of England Diocese: Manchester

Details

The monument includes a small stone circle with two outlying stones, a ring
cairn containing two small cairns within its enclosure, and two small round
cairns. It is situated at the north east edge of a moorland plateau known as
Cheetham Close and commands extensive views in every direction but the south.
The stone circle is slightly oval in plan, measures approximately 18m by 16m,
and has ten stones forming the circle, some of which are upstanding and some
of which have fallen. There is an upstanding outlying stone a short distance
to the south of the stone circle and a second outlying stone, now reduced to
an earthfast stump, approximately 35m to the south east of the circle. A short
distance to the south east of the upstanding outlying stone there is a ring
cairn located on slightly higher ground. It consists of a roughly circular low
earth and rubble bank about 1.75m wide and about 23.5m in diameter with traces
of a gritstone kerb both externally and internally. There is an entrance c.1m
wide in the north east quadrant which is flanked by thicker sections of bank.
The enclosed area within the bank is paved with cobbles and at the centre
there is a cairn measuring 4.5m in diameter and 0.25m high. A smaller cairn 2m
in diameter and 0.1m high lies in the ring cairn's north east quadrant. To the
north east of the stone circle there is a slightly oval round cairn measuring
5m by 4m and 0.3m high and some 28m to the south east of the ring cairn there
is a smaller round cairn measuring 2m in diameter and up to 0.3m high. During
limited investigation of the northern round cairn in 1958 three flint
arrowheads were recovered from the surrounding peat.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Stone circles are prehistoric monuments comprising one or more circles of
upright or recumbent stones. The circle of stones may be surrounded by
earthwork features such as enclosing banks and ditches. Single upright stones
may be found within the circle or outside it and avenues of stones radiating
out from the circle occur at some sites. Burial cairns may also be found close
to and on occasion within the circle. Stone circles are found throughout
England although they are concentrated in western areas, with particular
clusters in upland areas such as Bodmin and Dartmoor in the south-west and the
Lake District and the rest of Cumbria in the north-west. This distribution may
be more a reflection of present survival rather than an original pattern.
Where excavated they have been found to date from the Late Neolithic to the
Middle Bronze Age (c.2400-1000 BC). It is clear that they were carefully
designed and laid out, frequently exhibiting very regularly spaced stones, the
heights of which also appear to have been of some importance. We do not fully
understand the uses for which these monuments were originally constructed but
it is clear that they had considerable ritual importance for the societies
that used them. In many instances excavation has indicated that they provided
a focus for burials and the rituals that accompanied interment of the dead.
Some circles appear to have had a calendrical function, helping mark the
passage of time and seasons, this being indicated by the careful alignment of
stones to mark important solar or lunar events such as sunrise or sunset at
midsummer or midwinter. At other sites the spacing of individual circles
throughout the landscape has led to a suggestion that each one provided some
form of tribal gathering point for a specific social group. A small stone
circle comprises a regular or irregular ring of between 7 and 16 stones with a
diameter of between 4 and 20 metres. They are widespread throughout England
although clusters are found on Dartmoor, the North Yorkshire Moors, in the
Peak District and in the uplands of Cumbria and Northumberland. Of the 250 or
so stone circles identified in England, over 100 are examples of small stone
circles. As a rare monument type which provides an important insight into
prehistoric ritual activity, all surviving examples are worthy of
preservation.

Ring cairns are interpreted as Bronze Age ritual monuments. The exact nature
of the rituals concerned is not fully understood, but excavation of some ring
cairns has indicated pits and cairns, some containing burials and others
containing charcoal and pottery, taken to indicate feasting activities
associated with the burial rituals. As a relatively rare class of monument
exhibiting considerable variation in form, all positively identified examples
retaining significant archaeological deposits are considered worthy of
preservation. Round cairns are prehistoric funerary monuments also dating to
the Bronze Age and were constructed as stone mounds covering single or
multiple burials. These burials may be placed within the mound in stone-lined
compartments called cists. However, clearance cairns, built with stone
gathered from the surrounding landscape to improve its use for agriculture are
also a common Bronze Age feature on upland landscapes, and without excavation
it may be impossible to determine which cairns contain burials. Round cairns
have considerable variation in form and longevity as a monument type and
provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social
organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.
Despite some antiquarian disturbance, the stone circle, ring cairn and two
round cairns on Cheetham Close survive reasonably well and remain unencumbered
by modern development. Together these individual monuments represent evidence
of management and exploitation of the Bronze Age landscape and indicate the
importance of this area in prehistoric times and the diversity of monument
classes to be found here.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Dryden, H, British Burial Places near Bolton Co Lancs, (1850)
Dawes, M, 'Trans Hist Soc Lancs & Chesh' in British Burial Places Near Bolton Co Lancaster, , Vol. 4, (1852), 130-2
Fletcher, M, 'Greater Manchester Archaeological Journal' in A Bronze Age Complex On Cheetham Close, Turton: A New Survey, , Vol. 1, (1985), 1-12
Fletcher, M, 'Gt Manchester Archaeological Journal' in The Bronze Age Complex on Cheetham Close, Turton, (1985), 1-12
Fletcher, M, 'Gt Manchester Archaeological Journal' in The Bronze Age Complex on Cheetham Close, Turton, (1985), 12
French, G J, 'Trans Lancs & Chesh Antiq Soc' in The Stone Circle on Cheetham's Close, , Vol. 11, (1893), 154-6
Greenhalgh, T , 'Journal Brit Arch Assos' in Note on Druidical or Stone Circle on Cheetham Close, Turton, , Vol. 36, (1880), 443-4
Greenhalgh, T, 'Journal British Arch Assoc' in Druidical Circle in the Township of Turton, Bolton-le-Moors, , Vol. 27, (1871), 524-6
Other
Bowman, A., MPP Single Monument Class Description - Small Stone Circles, (1990)
Darvill, T, MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Bowl Barrows, (1989)
Darvill, T., MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Ring Cairns, (1989)

Source: Historic England

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